The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights, Freedom, Tolerance and Equality in Africa
Statistical Comparisons

By Vexen Crabtree 2019

#Africa #equality #human_rights #ICC #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)1,2
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank1,2
1S. Africa60.3
2Seychelles71.0
3Mauritius73.4
4Namibia76.4
5Senegal77.3
6Cape Verde81.3
7Burkina Faso85.1
8Mali87.0
9Ghana87.3
10Tunisia88.3
...
52Djibouti146.2
53Sao Tome & Principe147.8
54Somalia157.9
Africa Avg111.1
World Avg89.8
q=54.

Human Rights struggle in much of Africa. The best countries in Africa at protecting human rights, engendering tolerance and supporting equality, are S. Africa, Seychelles and Mauritius and the continent as a whole does better than the global average. The worst countries are Somalia, Sao Tome & Principe and Djibouti. Things are getting better. There is a rising expectation amongst Africans that governance must be fairer and less corrupt although this will cause more conflict for at least a generation3. In the last decade, a series of murderous dictators have been brought to justice4, and the developing courts of Africa have found themselves empowered to seek out human rights abusers at the highest levels. Although many countries are steeped in conflict, a message is being sent that war crimes and abusers cannot operate with immunity. When multiple rulers threatened to cease support for the International Criminal Court, an "an outpouring of popular support... helped to persuade most African governments to continue to stand behind the court5". In sub-Saharan Africa, a decrease in violence and increase in the rule of law and protections of human rights have led to a steady increase in peaceability since 20076.


1. Results by Country

#equality #human_rights #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)1,2
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank1,2
1S. Africa60.3
2Seychelles71.0
3Mauritius73.4
4Namibia76.4
5Senegal77.3
6Cape Verde81.3
7Burkina Faso85.1
8Mali87.0
9Ghana87.3
10Tunisia88.3
11Tanzania92.3
12Uganda95.0
13Lesotho95.9
14Madagascar99.4
15Niger100.3
16Morocco101.1
17Kenya101.1
18Rwanda101.1
19Ivory Coast101.8
20Botswana101.9
21Nigeria103.0
22S. Sudan103.2
23Benin103.8
24Mozambique103.9
25Gabon104.0
26Togo104.8
27Sierra Leone109.6
28Algeria110.6
29Egypt110.7
30Libya113.4
31Guinea114.6
32Zambia115.1
33Cameroon116.1
34Liberia119.1
35Ethiopia122.9
36Congo, DR123.1
37Gambia123.2
38Malawi125.3
39Burundi125.7
40Equatorial Guinea128.1
41Chad128.3
42Congo, (Brazzaville)128.5
43Central African Rep.129.8
44Guinea-Bissau132.1
45Eritrea135.0
46Angola135.0
47Comoros135.4
48Mauritania139.5
49Zimbabwe140.2
50Swaziland141.2
51Sudan144.1
52Djibouti146.2
53Sao Tome & Principe147.8
54Somalia157.9
Africa Avg111.1
q=54.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Denmark, Sweden and Norway1. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are Tuvalu, The Solomon Islands and Palestine1.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice and LGBT equality. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe1, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Melanesia and Australasia1.

The table on the right shows the full results list for Africa.

Compare Africa to other regions of the world: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent.

2. Human Rights & Tolerance

2.1. Human Rights Watch Comments

#human_rights

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)7
Pos.Higher is better
Score7
1Gambia2
2Ivory Coast-1
3Tunisia-2
4S. Africa-2
5Mozambique-2
6Tanzania-3
7Morocco-4
8Angola-4
9Nigeria-4
10Kenya-4
11Uganda-5
12S. Sudan-5
13Zimbabwe-5
14Mali-5
15Rwanda-6
16Ethiopia-7
17Equatorial Guinea-7
18Egypt-7
19Swaziland-7
20Central African Rep.-8
21Algeria-8
22Eritrea-9
23Somalia-9
24Libya-9
25Congo, DR-10
26Sudan-10
27Burundi-10
Africa Avg-5.6
World Avg-1.9
q=27.

Human Rights Watch comments concentrate mostly on negative issues, however, they also make positive comments for those countries that engage in human rights defence around the world, or who make improvements at home. By adding up positive and negative comments (including double-points for negatives that involve large scales and crimes against humanity), the Social and Moral Index turns HRW commentary into quantified values. Some countries may be unfairly penalized because HRW have not examined them, and, some countries "get away" with abuses if they manage to hide it, or if it goes unnoticed - a negative point has been given for those countries in which HRW specifically state that access to investigators has been barred. The points were limited to a minimum of -10 because there are some points at which things are so bad, with abuses affecting so many, it is difficult to be more specific about the depths of the issues.

2.2. Nominal Commitment to HR

#human_rights

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)8
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties8
1Mali21
2Senegal21
3Burkina Faso20
4Namibia20
5S. Africa20
6Rwanda19
7Lesotho19
8Uganda19
9Tunisia18
10Algeria18
11Niger18
12Guinea17
13Morocco17
14Nigeria16
15Burundi16
16Congo, DR16
17Egypt16
18Ghana16
19Seychelles16
20Gabon16
21Togo16
22Benin16
23Libya15
24Chad15
25Liberia15
26Sierra Leone15
27Cape Verde15
28Tanzania15
29Mozambique15
30Sudan14
31Madagascar14
32Botswana14
33Cameroon14
34Mauritius14
35Kenya14
36Djibouti13
37Malawi13
38Zambia13
39Ivory Coast13
40Mauritania13
41Gambia13
42Equatorial Guinea13
43Congo, (Brazzaville)13
44Angola12
45Ethiopia12
46Central African Rep.12
47Swaziland11
48Zimbabwe11
49Comoros9
50Guinea-Bissau8
51Somalia8
52Eritrea8
53Sao Tome & Principe7
Africa Avg14.8
World Avg15.1
q=53.

There are many international agreements on human rights, and, many mechanisms by which countries can be brought to account for their actions. Together, these have been the biggest historical movement in the fight against oppression and inhumanity. Or, putting it another way: these are rejected mostly by those who wish to oppress inhumanely. None of them are perfect and many people object to various components and wordings, but, no-one has come up with, and enforced, better methods of controlling the occasional desires that states and peoples have of causing angst for other states and peoples in a violent, unjust or inhumane way. Points are awarded for the number of human rights agreements ratified by the country, plus the acceptance of the petition mechanisms for disputes. The maximum possible score in 2009 was 24.

2.3. HR Treaties Lag

#human_rights #international_law #micronesia #politics #small_islands

HR Treaties Lag (2019)9
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Yrs/Treaty9
1Tunisia3.65
2Senegal4.32
3Namibia4.36
4Egypt4.52
5Mali4.97
6S. Sudan5.41
7Morocco5.44
8Libya5.61
9Cape Verde6.40
10Rwanda6.83
11Uganda7.03
12Mauritius7.09
13Guinea7.43
14Togo7.50
15Congo, DR7.72
16Seychelles7.73
17Madagascar7.75
18Tanzania8.05
19Kenya8.58
20Eritrea8.66
21Burkina Faso8.78
22Sierra Leone9.33
23Lesotho9.44
24Gabon9.47
25Nigeria9.71
26Niger9.89
27Algeria9.95
28Ghana10.64
29Zambia10.81
30Mozambique11.04
31Ethiopia11.13
32Benin11.15
33Chad11.23
34Burundi11.27
35Angola11.59
36Cameroon11.63
37Sudan11.65
38Malawi11.77
39Central African Rep.11.87
40Congo, (Brazzaville)11.91
41Botswana12.05
42Gambia12.12
43Ivory Coast12.14
44S. Africa12.51
45Swaziland13.16
46Equatorial Guinea13.18
47Guinea-Bissau13.23
48Mauritania13.56
49Liberia13.61
50Zimbabwe13.95
51Djibouti13.99
52Comoros14.82
53Somalia15.71
54Sao Tome & Principe16.17
Africa Avg9.88
World Avg10.02
q=54.

Human Rights (HR) Treaties Lag is a count of how long it took each country to sign each of 11 key HR treaties. From the date of the first signatory of each treaty, all other countries have one point added to their score for each day they delayed in signing. Results are presented as average time in years to sign each one. The lower a country's score, the more enthusiastically it has taken on international Human Rights Treaties - which are, of course, minimal standards of good governance. The slowest are the countries of Micronesia, Melanesia, Australasia and Polynesia all lagged by over 12 years per treaty. The best regions are The Americas, Scandinavia and the Mediterranean.

2.4. Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom

#freedom #politics

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)10
Pos.Lower is better
Rank10
1Mauritius34
2Seychelles51
3Ghana59
4Madagascar65
5Namibia69
6S. Africa74
7Benin79
8Rwanda85
9Burkina Faso88
10Kenya88
11Cape Verde92
12Botswana93
13Lesotho94
14Liberia94
15Tanzania99
16Uganda100
17Zambia103
18Mozambique103
19Malawi106
20Ivory Coast110
21Senegal111
22Guinea-Bissau118
23Burundi122
24Tunisia123
25Mali124
26Gambia125
27Cameroon126
28Morocco131
29Niger132
30Sierra Leone133
31Swaziland134
32Gabon135
33Togo136
34Congo, (Brazzaville)139
35Nigeria140
36Ethiopia142
37Mauritania143
38Egypt144
39Chad146
40Zimbabwe148
41Guinea149
42Angola150
43Congo, DR151
44Algeria152
45Central African Rep.155
46Libya159
Africa Avg114.2
World Avg79.7
q=46.

The Human Freedom Index published by the Fraser Institute is...

... a broad measure of human freedom, understood as the absence of coercive constraint. It uses 79 distinct indicators of personal and economic freedom in the following areas: Rule of Law, Security and Safety, Movement, Religion, Association, Assembly, and Civil Society, Expression, Relationships, Size of Government, Legal System and Property Rights, Access to Sound Money, Freedom to Trade Internationally, Regulation of Credit, Labor, and Business. [...]

The highest levels of freedom are in Western Europe, Northern Europe, and North America (Canada and the United States. The lowest levels are in the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. [...]

Countries in the top quartile of freedom enjoy a significant higher per capita income ($37,147) [compared with] the least-free quartile [at] $8,700). The HFI finds a strong correlation between human freedom and democracy.

"The Human Freedom Index" by The Fraser Institute (2016)11

2.5. Press Freedom

#democracy #freedom #mass_media #politics #UK

Press Freedom (2013)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Namibia1250
2Cape Verde1433
3Ghana1727
4Botswana2291
5Niger2308
6Burkina Faso2370
7Comoros2452
8S. Africa2456
9Senegal2619
10Sierra Leone2635
11Mauritius2647
12Central African Rep.2661
13Mauritania2676
14Tanzania2734
15Kenya2780
16Zambia2793
17Mozambique2801
18Malawi2818
19Congo, (Brazzaville)2820
20Benin2833
21Lesotho2836
22Togo2845
23Guinea2849
24Madagascar2862
25Gabon2869
26Guinea-Bissau2894
27Seychelles2919
28Ivory Coast2977
29Liberia2989
30Mali3003
31Uganda3169
32Nigeria3411
33Cameroon3478
34Chad3487
35S. Sudan3620
36Algeria3654
37Angola3780
38Libya3786
39Burundi3802
40Zimbabwe3812
41Morocco3904
42Ethiopia3957
43Tunisia3993
44Congo, DR4166
45Gambia4509
46Swaziland4676
47Egypt4866
48Rwanda5546
49Equatorial Guinea6720
50Djibouti6740
51Sudan7006
52Somalia7359
53Eritrea8483
Africa Avg3511
World Avg3249
q=53.

The freedom to investigate, publish information, and have access to others' opinion is a fundamental part of today's information-driven world. Scores on the Press Freedom Index are calculated according to indicators including pluralism - the degree to which opinions are represented in the media, media independence of authorities, self-censorship, legislation, transparency and the infrastructure that supports news and information, and, the level of violence against journalists which includes lengths of imprisonments. The index "does not take direct account of the kind of political system but it is clear that democracies provide better protection for the freedom to produce and circulate accurate news and information than countries where human rights are flouted".

It must be noted that press freedom is not an indicator of press quality and the press itself can be abusive; the UK suffers in particular from a popular brand of nasty reporting that infuses several of its newspapers who are particularly prone to running destructive and often untrue campaigns against victims. The Press Freedom Index notes that "the index should in no way be taken as an indicator of the quality of the media in the countries concerned".

2.6. Slavery

#burundi #eritrea #france #human_rights #indonesia #slavery

Slavery (2018)13
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims13
1Mauritius0.10
2Tunisia0.22
3Morocco0.24
4Algeria0.27
5S. Africa0.28
6Senegal0.29
7Namibia0.33
8Botswana0.34
9Mali0.36
10Cape Verde0.41
11Lesotho0.42
12Burkina Faso0.45
13Gabon0.48
14Ghana0.48
15Sierra Leone0.50
16Mozambique0.54
17Benin0.55
18Egypt0.55
19Zambia0.57
20Gambia0.58
21Ivory Coast0.59
22Ethiopia0.61
23Tanzania0.62
24Equatorial Guinea0.64
25Niger0.67
26Zimbabwe0.67
27Togo0.68
28Cameroon0.69
29Kenya0.69
30Djibouti0.71
31Angola0.72
32Liberia0.74
33Guinea-Bissau0.75
34Madagascar0.75
35Malawi0.75
36Uganda0.76
37Nigeria0.77
38Libya0.77
39Guinea0.78
40Congo, (Brazzaville)0.80
41Swaziland0.88
42Rwanda1.16
43Chad1.20
44Sudan1.20
45Congo, DR1.37
46Somalia1.55
47S. Sudan2.05
48Mauritania2.14
49Central African Rep.2.23
50Burundi4.00
51Eritrea9.30
Africa Avg0.96
World Avg0.65
q=51.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory14. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends15. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life16. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves17.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery18. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity19. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.20. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi13, Eritrea13, Indonesia21) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery22.

See:

3. Gender Equality

3.1. Gender Inequality

#gender #gender_equality #human_rights #misogyny #women

Gender Inequality (2015)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Libya0.17
2Tunisia0.29
3Mauritius0.38
4Rwanda0.38
5S. Africa0.39
6Algeria0.43
7Botswana0.44
8Namibia0.47
9Burundi0.47
10Morocco0.49
11Ethiopia0.50
12Senegal0.52
13Uganda0.52
14Sao Tome & Principe0.52
15Zambia0.53
16Zimbabwe0.54
17Gabon0.54
18Tanzania0.54
19Ghana0.55
20Lesotho0.55
21Togo0.56
22Kenya0.56
23Egypt0.57
24Swaziland0.57
25Cameroon0.57
26Mozambique0.57
27Sudan0.57
28Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
29Benin0.61
30Malawi0.61
31Burkina Faso0.62
32Mauritania0.63
33Gambia0.64
34Central African Rep.0.65
35Liberia0.65
36Sierra Leone0.65
37Congo, DR0.66
38Ivory Coast0.67
39Mali0.69
40Chad0.69
41Niger0.70
Africa Avg0.54
World Avg0.36
q=41.

The UN Human Development Reports include statistics on gender equality which take into account things like maternal mortality, access to political power (seats in parliament) and differences between male and female education rates. Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

3.2. Year Women Can Vote

#christianity #gender_equality #human_rights #politics #women

Year Women Can Vote
Pos.Lower is better
Year
1S. Africa1930
2Togo1945
3Senegal1945
4Cameroon1946
5Liberia1946
6Niger1948
7Seychelles1948
8Ivory Coast1952
9Ghana1954
10Eritrea1955
11Ethiopia1955
12Mauritius1956
13Comoros1956
14Egypt1956
15Somalia1956
16Benin1956
17Mali1956
18Gabon1956
19Burkina Faso1958
20Guinea1958
21Nigeria1958
22Chad1958
23Madagascar1959
24Tunisia1959
25Tanzania1959
26Gambia1960
27Mauritania1961
28Rwanda1961
29Malawi1961
30Sierra Leone1961
31Burundi1961
32Uganda1962
33Algeria1962
34Zambia1962
35Equatorial Guinea1963
36Morocco1963
37Kenya1963
38Sudan1964
39Libya1964
40Lesotho1965
41Botswana1965
42Swaziland1968
43Congo, (Brazzaville)1970
44Congo, DR1970
45Sao Tome & Principe1975
46Cape Verde1975
47Angola1975
48Mozambique1975
49Guinea-Bissau1977
50Zimbabwe1978
51Djibouti1986
52Central African Rep.1986
53Namibia1989
Africa Avg1961
World Avg1930
q=53.

Women now have equal rights in the vast majority of countries across the world. Although academic literature oftens talks of when a country "grants women the right to vote", this enforces a backwards way of thinking. Women always had the right to vote, however, they were frequently denied that right. The opposition to women's ability to vote in equality with man was most consistently and powerfully opposed by the Catholic Church, other Christian organisations, Islamic authorities and some other religious and secular traditionalists.

4. Prejudice

4.1. Anti-Semite Opinions

#antisemitism #christianity #germany #indonesia #israel #jordan #judaism #laos #morocco #netherlands #pakistan #philippines #religion #religious_violence #saudi_arabia #spain #sweden #turkey #UK #vietnam

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)24
Pos.Lower is better
%24
1Tanzania12
2Ghana15
3Uganda16
4Nigeria16
5Ivory Coast22
6Botswana33
7Cameroon35
8Kenya35
9S. Africa38
10Mauritius44
11Senegal53
12Egypt75
13Morocco80
14Tunisia86
15Algeria87
16Libya87
Africa Avg45.9
World Avg36.8
q=16.

Anti-Semitism is the world given to irrational racism against Jews. It is not the same as anti-Judaism (involving arguments against the religion) nor the same as anti-Zionism (arguments against Israel). In history, influential Christian theologians concocted the arguments against Jews that led, very early on, to widespread Christian action against Jews25,26,27,28. As Christianity rose to power in the West and presided over the Dark Ages, there were widespread violent outbursts against Jews of the most persistent and horrible kind. The Crusades were frequently aimed at them and the feared Spanish Inquisition paid Jews particular attention. The horror of the holocaust instigated by German Nazis in the 1940s was followed (finally) by the era of European human rights and a movement against racism in general.

The places that are the least anti-Semitical are a few countries of south-east Asia (Laos, the Philippines and Vietnam) and some of the secular liberal democracies of Europe (Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK). The worst countries for antisemitism are Islamic states of the Middle East29, which are undergoing their own Dark Age. Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Indonesia, Pakistan and Turkey see the most oppressive and violent actions towards Jews30,31. Jews in Muslim countries face a host of restrictions and "ceaseless humiliation and regular pogroms"32. In 2004 the European Union Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia reported on violent anti-Jew crimes in the EU and found that that largest group of perpetrators were young Muslim males33.

See:

4.2. LGBT Equality

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Score34
1S. Africa78
2Seychelles25
3Cape Verde25
4Sao Tome & Principe20
5Guinea-Bissau20
6Central African Rep.20
7Mozambique17
8Equatorial Guinea15
9Lesotho15
10Congo, DR15
11Burkina Faso15
12Djibouti11
13Mali11
14Gabon10
15Rwanda7
16Madagascar5
17Congo, (Brazzaville)5
18Chad5
19Niger1
20Benin1
21Ivory Coast1
22Sierra Leone-3
23Namibia-5
24S. Sudan-10
25Mauritius-10
26Ethiopia-14
27Eritrea-14
28Kenya-14
29Swaziland-14
30Zambia-15
31Tanzania-17
32Gambia-19
33Liberia-20
34Burundi-20
35Malawi-22
36Uganda-22
37Nigeria-22
38Zimbabwe-24
39Ghana-25
40Botswana-25
41Egypt-27
42Togo-29
43Comoros-30
44Angola-30
45Mauritania-32
46Algeria-37
47Tunisia-39
48Cameroon-39
49Senegal-39
50Guinea-39
51Libya-42
52Morocco-42
53Sudan-67
54Somalia-79
Africa Avg-10.4
World Avg12.6
q=54.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence35. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws36. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries35. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

See:

5. Things are Getting Better

#chad #libya #senegal

Things are changing for the better:

One of the most encouraging responses to anti-rights autocrats could be found in Africa. [...] Gambia's President Yahya Jammeh lost a free and fair election to Adama Barrow, and when he refused to accept the results, was eased out of office by the threat of West African troops. [...] As recently as a year ago, many African leaders, some with blood on their hands and fearing prosecution, were plotting a mass exodus of their countries from membership in the International Criminal Court. Using populist rhetoric against what they claimed was neo-colonialism, they sought to portray the ICC as anti-African. [...] An outpouring of popular support for the ICC by civic groups across Africa helped to persuade most African governments to continue to stand behind the court. [...]

Responding in large part to the campaigning of women's rights activists, three Middle Eastern and North African states-Tunisia, Jordan, and Lebanon-repealed provisions in their penal codes that allowed rapists to escape punishment by marrying their victims.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)5

In 2016 May, Hissene Habre, Chad's ex-dictator, has been convicted in a court in Senegal, found guilty of war crimes against humanity, of rape and of torture. The Economist reports this as a potential game-changer - the first time a African national court has unilaterally tried a foreign dictator, setting a precedence for African human rights law. 'Perhaps 40,000 people died in Chad during Mr Habré's reign of terror between 1982 and 1990. Armed by America (and supported with hundreds of millions of dollars in aid because of his opposition to Muammar Qadaffi's regime in Libya), his political police crushed any tribe they deemed a threat to his rule. [...] This is a landmark for African justice, and a coup for the victims who have pursued it with help from Human Rights Watch, a watchdog.

The Economist (2016)4

Such developments do have a bit of history, albeit a weak one.

A regional human rights regime also operates in Africa, based on the 1981 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. It is substantively much weaker than its European and American counterparts. Nonetheless, it is of great regional symbolic significance and has provided considerable encouragement and support to national activists. The norms in the African Charter are riddled with clawback clauses that weaken the protections. For example, Article 6 states, No one may be deprived of his freedom except for reasons and conditions previously laid down by law. In other words, so long as a government bothers to pass a law first it can deprive people of their freedom for pretty much any reason it chooses. [...] The institutions for monitoring and enforcement are extremely weak. [...]

Despite all these limitations, the African Commission is a leading regional voice for human rights. Its meetings provide the occasion for valuable networking by NGOs from across the continent. Its activities have helped to socialize African states to the idea that their human rights practices are legitimately subject to regional scrutiny - a not insignificant achievement given the radical notions of sovereignty and nonintervention that dominated the continent in the 1970s and 1980s. And, whatever the current shortcoming, there is an infrastructure in place that African states can build on in the future.

"Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice" by Jack Donnelly (2013)37

6. The International Criminal Court (ICC) in Africa

The International Criminal Court finds itself most active in Africa.

The ICC, which was created in 2002, is a permanent tribunal that provides individual criminal liability for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. [...] In 2011 the ICC dealt with situations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (involving four cases against five individuals), the Central African Republic (one case against one individual), Uganda (one case against four individuals), the Darfur region of Sudan (four cases against six individuals, including the sitting president of the country), Kenya (one case against three individuals), Libya (one case against two individuals), and Cote D'Ivoire (one case against the former president). This is a reasonable sampling of major cases in recent years and the fact that national leaders have been charged is of considerable significance.

"Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice" by Jack Donnelly (2013)38

It seems to some commentators that the ICC is exclusively concerned with Africa to an extent that is undue and even biased. Arguments have been made that its existence is slowing the progress of the African Union to develop continental procedures of its own. But, ultimately, the ICC only ever manages to engage with very small numbers of cases, and it seems that a local body can, and should, be developed to take on the rest.39