The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights, Equality and Freedom in Afghanistan

By Vexen Crabtree 2018

#Afghanistan #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Afghanistan is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Afghanistan does better than average in speed of uptake of HR treaties1. But that's it. Afghanistan has problems. It does worse than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights2, supporting press freedom3 and in LGBT equality4. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports5 and in opposing gender inequality6 (amongst the worst in Asia). Kandahar province in particular is noteworthy for the use of truly horrible methods of torture and violence by police officials, and over half of the (many) cases of violence against journalists involve government officials and security staff7.


1. Afghanistan's Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #human_rights #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)8,9
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank8,9
1Denmark9.7
2Sweden10.0
3Norway16.1
...
169Guinea-Bissau132.1
170Myanmar (Burma)132.2
171Samoa134.0
172Afghanistan134.3
173Angola135.0
174Eritrea135.0
175Comoros135.4
176Iran136.5
177Grenada138.8
World Avg89.8
q=199.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Denmark, Sweden and Norway8. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are Tuvalu, The Solomon Islands and Palestine8.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice and LGBT equality. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe8, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Melanesia and Australasia8.

2. Human Rights & Tolerance Data Sets

An April report by UNAMA documented the highest levels of torture of conflict-related detainees in police custody since 2010. The report singled out the Kandahar police for torturing 91 percent of detainees by forcibly pumping water into their stomachs, crushing their testicles with clamps, suffocating them to the point of losing consciousness, and applying electric current to their genitals. In a significant sign of progress in curbing torture, the government in March enacted anti-torture legislation, as part of the new penal code. [...] In May, a report by the UN Committee Against Torture described "numerous and credible allegations" of severe human rights abuses, including torture and extrajudicial killings. [...] The government did not prosecute any senior officials accused of torture.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)7

2.1. Human Rights Watch Comments

#human_rights

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)5
Pos.Higher is better
Score5
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
116Burundi-10
117N. Korea-10
118Malaysia-10
119Pakistan-10
120Afghanistan-10
121Congo, DR-10
122Saudi Arabia-10
123Syria-10
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Human Rights Watch comments concentrate mostly on negative issues, however, they also make positive comments for those countries that engage in human rights defence around the world, or who make improvements at home. By adding up positive and negative comments (including double-points for negatives that involve large scales and crimes against humanity), the Social and Moral Index turns HRW commentary into quantified values. Some countries may be unfairly penalized because HRW have not examined them, and, some countries "get away" with abuses if they manage to hide it, or if it goes unnoticed - a negative point has been given for those countries in which HRW specifically state that access to investigators has been barred. The points were limited to a minimum of -10 because there are some points at which things are so bad, with abuses affecting so many, it is difficult to be more specific about the depths of the issues.

2.2. Nominal Commitment to HR

#human_rights

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)2
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties2
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
128Zambia13
129Congo, (Brazzaville)13
130Ivory Coast13
131Afghanistan13
132Gambia13
133Equatorial Guinea13
134Antigua & Barbuda13
135Nepal13
World Avg15.1
q=194.

There are many international agreements on human rights, and, many mechanisms by which countries can be brought to account for their actions. Together, these have been the biggest historical movement in the fight against oppression and inhumanity. Or, putting it another way: these are rejected mostly by those who wish to oppress inhumanely. None of them are perfect and many people object to various components and wordings, but, no-one has come up with, and enforced, better methods of controlling the occasional desires that states and peoples have of causing angst for other states and peoples in a violent, unjust or inhumane way. Points are awarded for the number of human rights agreements ratified by the country, plus the acceptance of the petition mechanisms for disputes. The maximum possible score in 2009 was 24.

2.3. HR Treaties Lag

#human_rights #international_law #micronesia #politics #small_islands

HR Treaties Lag (2019)1
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Yrs/Treaty1
1Ecuador2.15
2Uruguay2.25
3Tunisia3.65
...
94St Vincent & Grenadines9.98
95Azerbaijan10.08
96Lebanon10.14
97Afghanistan10.23
98Dominican Rep.10.24
99Kuwait10.36
100Laos10.53
101Cambodia10.56
World Avg10.02
q=195.

Human Rights (HR) Treaties Lag is a count of how long it took each country to sign each of 11 key HR treaties. From the date of the first signatory of each treaty, all other countries have one point added to their score for each day they delayed in signing. Results are presented as average time in years to sign each one. The lower a country's score, the more enthusiastically it has taken on international Human Rights Treaties - which are, of course, minimal standards of good governance. The slowest are the countries of Micronesia, Melanesia, Australasia and Polynesia all lagged by over 12 years per treaty. The best regions are The Americas, Scandinavia and the Mediterranean.

2.4. Press Freedom

#democracy #freedom #mass_media #politics #UK

Press Freedom (2013)3
Pos.Lower is better3
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
124Algeria3654
125Ukraine3679
126Honduras3692
127Afghanistan3736
128Colombia3748
129Angola3780
130Libya3786
131Burundi3802
World Avg3249
q=178.

The freedom to investigate, publish information, and have access to others' opinion is a fundamental part of today's information-driven world. Scores on the Press Freedom Index are calculated according to indicators including pluralism - the degree to which opinions are represented in the media, media independence of authorities, self-censorship, legislation, transparency and the infrastructure that supports news and information, and, the level of violence against journalists which includes lengths of imprisonments. The index "does not take direct account of the kind of political system but it is clear that democracies provide better protection for the freedom to produce and circulate accurate news and information than countries where human rights are flouted".

It must be noted that press freedom is not an indicator of press quality and the press itself can be abusive; the UK suffers in particular from a popular brand of nasty reporting that infuses several of its newspapers who are particularly prone to running destructive and often untrue campaigns against victims. The Press Freedom Index notes that "the index should in no way be taken as an indicator of the quality of the media in the countries concerned".

[2017] looked likely to surpass 2016 as the bloodiest since 2001 for Afghan journalists, [...] since January, the Afghan Journalists Safety Committee (AJSC) recorded 73 cases of violence and threats against journalists, including deaths, detentions, beatings, and intimidation. Government officials and security personnel were responsible for slightly more than half of the cases.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)7

2.5. Slavery

#burundi #eritrea #france #human_rights #indonesia #slavery

Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
160Pakistan1.68
161S. Sudan2.05
162Mauritania2.14
163Afghanistan2.22
164Central African Rep.2.23
165Burundi4.00
166Eritrea9.30
167N. Korea10.46
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory11. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends12. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life13. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves14.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery15. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity16. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.17. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia18) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery19.

3. Gender Equality Data Sets

Afghanistan culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

3.1. Gender Inequality

#gender #gender_equality #human_rights #misogyny #women

Gender Inequality (2015)6
Pos.Lower is better6
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
151Sierra Leone0.65
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
World Avg0.36
q=159.

The UN Human Development Reports include statistics on gender equality which take into account things like maternal mortality, access to political power (seats in parliament) and differences between male and female education rates. Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

3.2. Year Women Can Vote

#christianity #gender_equality #human_rights #politics #women

Year Women Can Vote
Pos.Lower is better
Year
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
140Iran1963
141Kenya1963
142Fiji1963
143Afghanistan1963
144Equatorial Guinea1963
145Bahamas1963
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
World Avg1930
q=189.

Women now have equal rights in the vast majority of countries across the world. Although academic literature oftens talks of when a country "grants women the right to vote", this enforces a backwards way of thinking. Women always had the right to vote, however, they were frequently denied that right. The opposition to women's ability to vote in equality with man was most consistently and powerfully opposed by the Catholic Church, other Christian organisations, Islamic authorities and some other religious and secular traditionalists.

4. Prejudice Data Sets

4.1. LGBT Equality

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

In Afghanistan, same-sex relations are punishable by 5 to 15 years in prison under a law that bans all sex between individuals not married to each other [which homosexuals cannot do].

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)7

LGBT Equality (2017)4
Pos.Higher is better
Score4
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
154Malaysia-19
155Gambia-19
156Maldives-19
157Afghanistan-19
158Liberia-20
159Bhutan-20
160Burundi-20
161Nigeria-22
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence20. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws21. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries20. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.