The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Chile

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Chile #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #venezuela

Chile
Republic of Chile

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSantiago (administrative/judicial) and Valparaiso (legislative)
Land Area 743 532km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population17.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.96yrs (2017)3
GNI$21 665 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCL, CHL, 1525
Internet Domain.cl6
CurrencyPeso (CLP)7
Telephone+568

Chile performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Chile does the second-best in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9. It comes in the top 20 in eliminating modern slavery10. It does better than average in fighting corruption11, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms12, its Global Peace Index rating13, commentary from Human Rights Watch14, supporting press freedom15, opposing gender inequality16 and in LGBT equality17. Chile does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions18. In 2017, the courts continued to prosecute those responsible for human rights violations during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship from aa1973 to 199019. But there are still ongoing issues with the justice system including too much mistreatment and overcrowding19. Inhumane restrictions on family planning services (including the end of the total ban on abortion) were lightened in 2017, including access for LGBT folk19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #Chile #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

In 2017, the courts continued to prosecute those responsible for human rights violations during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship from 1973 to 199019. But there are still ongoing issues with the justice system, and a full third of all prisoners have not yet been processed through the justice system, and, prisons are operating beyond capacity. "In 2017, the National Human Rights Institute (INDH) filed dozens of lawsuits for mistreatment of prison inmates, including for the new crime of torture, which was incorporated into the criminal code in November 2016"19.

Along with 11 others, Chile signed the Lima Declaration in 2017, condemning "the assault on democratic order and the systematic violation of human rights in Venezuela"20.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
62Lithuania36
63Guatemala36
64France37
65Chile37
66Azerbaijan37
67Ukraine38
68S. Africa38
69Belarus38
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)11
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score11
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
20Uruguay72.6
21Austria72.2
22Barbados71.5
23Chile70.4
24France70.0
25Bahamas69.8
26UAE68.6
27St Lucia68.3
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)13
Pos.Lower is better13
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
27Taiwan1.60
28Netherlands1.61
29UK1.61
30Chile1.62
31Botswana1.62
32Romania1.63
33Uruguay1.63
34Vietnam1.64
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
32Hungary3
33Gambia2
34Liechtenstein2
35Chile2
36Paraguay1
37Costa Rica1
38Norway1
39Panama1
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
4Ecuador23
5Germany23
6Mexico23
7Peru23
8Spain23
9Slovenia23
10Paraguay23
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
26Taiwan26
27Slovakia27
28Italy28
29Chile29
30Romania30
31France31
32Japan32
33Cyprus33
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
56Italy2611
57Hong Kong2616
58Senegal2619
59Chile2624
60Sierra Leone2635
61Mauritius2647
62Serbia2659
63Croatia2661
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
4Australia0.06
5New Zealand0.06
6Chile0.08
7Mauritius0.10
8Uruguay0.10
9Costa Rica0.13
10USA0.13
11Argentina0.13
12Hong Kong0.14
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

2. Gender Equality

#Chile #gender #misogyny #politics #women

"Twenty-eight years after the Chilean dictatorship imposed a total abortion ban, and after a difficult process... the government in September 2017 enacted a law decriminalizing abortion if the life of the pregnant woman is at risk, the fetus is unviable, or the pregnancy is due to rape"19. This brings routine access to family planning to the bare minimum, and does not reach a healthy and fair level of access for women.

Gender Inequality (2015)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
62Cuba0.30
63Costa Rica0.31
64Maldives0.31
65Chile0.32
66Tajikistan0.32
67Trinidad & Tobago0.32
68Azerbaijan0.33
69Turkey0.33
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
76Suriname1948
77Seychelles1948
78Costa Rica1949
79Chile1949
80China1949
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
83India1950
World Avg1930
q=189.

Chile has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Chile #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)17
Pos.Higher is better
Score17
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
64Venezuela30
65Lithuania30
66Taiwan25
67Chile25
68Ukraine25
69Mongolia25
70Liechtenstein25
71Macedonia25
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws32. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

"In August 2017, President Bachelet introduced a bill to Congress that would legalize same-sex marriage and grant same-sex couples the right to access assisted reproduction techniques and adoption" and in the same year the ability to recognize gender identity was also being progressed19.

4. Chile Overall National and Social Development

#Chile #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
34Uruguay66.0
35Israel65.9
36Latvia65.6
37Chile65.4
38Costa Rica64.8
39Slovakia64.1
40Lithuania63.9
41Greece62.9
42Bulgaria62.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Nov 06
http://www.humantruth.info/chile_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Chile (Republic of Chile)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #Chile #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #venezuela #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  11. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  12. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  13. ^^
  14. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  17. Sources:^^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p132-136.^^^^
  20. Human Rights Watch (2018). p617-624.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  22. McCall (1979). p180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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