The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Kosovo

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kosovo #politics #tolerance

Kosovo
[Country Profile Page]
StatusDisputed status
CapitalPristina
Land Area 10 887km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans
Population
Life Expectancy
GNI
ISO3166-1 Codes, , 2
Internet Domain3
Currency4
Telephone+5

Kosovo does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Kosovo does better than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch6, LGBT equality7, eliminating modern slavery8 and in supporting press freedom9. Kosovo does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting corruption10. Solid progress is being made in bringing prosecutions against those involved in serious war crimescommitted during the 1998-1999 Kosovo war11.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #human_rights #indonesia #Kosovo #mass_media #politics #slavery

In 2017 Kosovo´s Constitutional Court approved procedural revisions to allow the Hague-based court to begin prosecutions for those involved in serious war crimes during the 1998-1999 Kosovo war11. The European Union has appointed and funded 19 international judges, and will abide by Kosovo's own laws11. By Feb 2017, it had issued 58 actions, starting with charging an ex-paramilitary Serbian man with war crimes in Kosovo Polje; his crimes included torturing civilian ethnic Albanians11.

Corruption (2012-2016)10
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score10
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
108Djibouti34.0
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
113Ethiopia33.2
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)6
Pos.Higher is better
Score6
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
43Guatemala-1
44Armenia-1
45Ivory Coast-1
46Kosovo-1
47Honduras-1
48Peru-1
49Mozambique-2
50Brazil-2
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Press Freedom (2013)9
Pos.Lower is better9
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
81Bhutan2842
82Togo2845
83Greece2846
84Kosovo2847
85Guinea2849
86Bulgaria2858
87Madagascar2862
88Gabon2869
World Avg3249
q=178.

Journalists face some threats and harassment but prosecutions against malefactors are slow and unreliable11.

Slavery (2018)8
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims8
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
78Israel0.39
79Latvia0.39
80Dominican Rep.0.40
81Kosovo0.40
82Cape Verde0.41
83Kyrgyzstan0.41
84Cyprus0.42
85Kazakhstan0.42
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory12. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends13. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life14. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves15.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery16. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity17. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.18. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi8, Eritrea8, Indonesia19) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery20.

2. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Kosovo #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)7
Pos.Higher is better
Score7
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
53Georgia35
54Nicaragua35
55El Salvador35
56Kosovo35
57Thailand34
58Bulgaria33
59Fiji32
60S. Korea30
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence21. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws22. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries21. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Kosovo law strictly defines marriage in a way that specifically excludes same-sex marriage11, needlessly entrenching prejudice into law and encourage social intolerance.

3. Kosovo Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Kosovo

Social & Moral
Development Index
23
Pos.Higher is better
Points23
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
121Belize49.2
122Burkina Faso49.1
123Botswana48.9
124Kosovo48.7
125Honduras48.7
126Puerto Rico48.6
127Micronesia48.3
128Timor-Leste (E. Timor)48.1
129Indonesia48.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/kosovo_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Kosovo

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Kosovo #mass_media #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  3. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  4. According to ISO4217.^
  5. According to ITU-T.^
  6. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  7. Sources:^^
  8. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  9. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  10. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). p474-478.^^^
  12. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  13. McCall (1979). p180.^
  14. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  15. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  16. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  17. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  18. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  19. Klein (2004) .^
  20. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  21. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  22. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  23. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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