The Human Truth Foundation

Kosovo

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#kosovo

Kosovo
StatusDisputed status
Social and Moral Index51st best
CapitalPristina
Land Area 10 887km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans
Population
GNI
ISO3166-1 Codes, , 2
Internet Domain3
Currency4
Telephone+5

1. Overview

The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.) with status almost equivalent to that of a republic under the 1974 S.F.R.Y. constitution. Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. At the same time, Serb nationalist leaders, such as Slobodan MILOSEVIC, exploited Kosovo Serb claims of maltreatment to secure votes from supporters, many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia instituted a new constitution in 1989 that revoked Kosovo's status as an autonomous province of Serbia. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum that declared Kosovo independent. Under MILOSEVIC, Serbia carried out repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the early 1990s as the unofficial Kosovo government, led by Ibrahim RUGOVA, used passive resistance in an attempt to try to gain international assistance and recognition of an independent Kosovo. Albanians dissatisfied with RUGOVA's passive strategy in the 1990s created the Kosovo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. Starting in 1998, Serbian military, police, and paramilitary forces under MILOSEVIC conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians. Approximately 800,000 Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo during this time. International attempts to mediate the conflict failed, and MILOSEVIC's rejection of a proposed settlement led to a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 that forced Serbia to agree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The negotiations ran in stages between 2006 and 2007, but ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over 95 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and is in the process of signing a framework agreement with the European Investment Bank (EIB). In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo's unique history and circumstances. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries are currently engaged in an EU-facilitated dialogue aimed at normalizing the countries' relations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)6

Book CoverIt may be Europe´s newest country, but Kosovo´s long and dramatic history can be witnessed at every turn in elegant Ottoman towns and little-visited mountain vistas. Kosovo is contested territory. Populated predominately by Albanians, it is considered holy ground by minority Serbs. The Kosovar Albanians declared independence in 2008, a move hotly disputed by some and still not universally recognised, leading to tensions between Albanian and Serbian locals.

Far from being the dangerous or depressing place most people imagine, Kosovo is a fascinating land at the heart of the Balkans and one of the last corners of Eastern Europe where tourism has yet to take off.

Barbs of its past are impossible to miss: roads are dotted with memorials to those killed in inter-ethnic tension in 1999, while NATO forces still guard Serbian monasteries. But with independence has come a degree of stability, and Kosovo is now the latest word in getting off the beaten track in the Balkans. Visitors will be rewarded with welcoming smiles, terracotta-roofed old quarters, remote 13th-century domed Orthodox monasteries and poppy-splashed hillside meadows, which they will likely have all to themselves.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)7

2. Kosovo National and Social Development

#human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
8,9
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank8,9
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
48Monaco70.5
49Albania71.4
50Mexico72.3
51Kosovo73.2
52Malaysia73.2
53Moldova73.2
54Bosnia & Herzegovina73.5
55Liechtenstein73.5
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kosovo #politics #tolerance

Kosovo does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Kosovo does better than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports10 (but bad for Europe), LGBT equality11 (but low for Europe) and in supporting press freedom12 (but bad for Europe). Solid progress is being made in bringing prosecutions against those involved in serious war crimescommitted during the 1998-1999 Kosovo war13.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

4. Kosovo's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #maths #religion #science

Modernity and Education:

Maths, Science & Reading (2015)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
63Brazil1185
64Peru1182
65Lebanon1129
66Tunisia1114
67Macedonia1107
68Kosovo1087
69Algeria1086
70Dominican Rep.1018
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)15
Pos.Lower is better
%15
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
69Bolivia89
70Syria89
71Tanzania89
72Kosovo90
73India90
74Kuwait91
75UAE91
76Pakistan92
World Avg75.1
q=114.

5. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
85Belize70
86Nicaragua73.5
87Pakistan75
88Kosovo76
89Lebanon77.25
90Senegal79
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)17
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score17
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
108Djibouti34.0
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
113Ethiopia33.2
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)18
Pos.Higher is better18
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
63Estonia5.7
64Paraguay5.7
65Peru5.7
66Kosovo5.7
67Moldova5.6
68Turkmenistan5.6
69Hungary5.6
70Libya5.6
World Avg5.38
q=156.

6. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Impact of Terrorism (2019)19
Pos.Lower is better
Score19
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
69Madagascar1.96
70Finland2.03
71Haiti2.18
72Kosovo2.26
73Japan2.29
74Netherlands2.35
75Ecuador2.46
76Kuwait2.49
World Avg2.78
q=150.

7. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)15
Pos.Lower is better
%15
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
69Bolivia89
70Syria89
71Tanzania89
72Kosovo90
73India90
74Kuwait91
75UAE91
76Pakistan92
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below20:

Christian11.4%
Muslim87%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholic21.

Links: