|Percent of Population|
|10||San Marino||15.7%||9.9%||33 785|
|47||Bosnia & Herzegovina||1.1%||38.9%||3.3m|
Some tiny countries in Europe are mostly comprised of immigrants. The countries in Europe with the highest percent of immigrants in their populations are Liechtenstein (65.1%), Monaco (54.9%) and Andorra (53.3%), although the average for Europe is 14%. Of the large countries with more than 10 million in their population, the highest proportion of immigrants can be found in Spain (15%), Belgium (14%) and Germany (13%). When it comes to emigration the highest rates are Monaco (56.3%), Albania (45.4%) and Bosnia & Herzegovina (38.9%). The continental average is 13% who have gone to live elsewhere from their home countries.
Europe, like the USA, has always had high immigration. Invading armies and influential cultures have spread from place to place continuously over thousands of years, with no communities remaining undisturbed for very long. Popular culture has been decimated by Americanisation and European cross-pollination: food, commerce, goods and lifestyles are almost completely unrelated to historic practices, with a long stream of practical accommodations eventually becoming commonplace4. Cultural importation has been massively successful - we know this, because almost everyone assumes that most of what they do is traditional nationalist behaviour.
“The historic cities of Europe, which are far older than most nation states, retain a remarkable ability to absorb newcomers and accommodate many different kinds of social reality. The practical problems posed by co-existence between faiths and cultures - from swimming-pool regulations to the slaughter of animals to headgear in municipal premises - can often be handled in practical ways through a healthy process of local bargaining. Issues like land use, burial, hygiene, food safety and noise simply have to be managed locally for cities to function at all.”
But such things always needs oversight; national human rights should be made clear and absolute so that local practices don't start backpeddling on the rights of those who cannot look after themselves - especially minorities-within-minorities. The ratchet of progress can all too easily break apart and allow ghettos, mass ignorance, mass illiteracy and other evils erode the humanity of our advanced species. Some of the worst are those who say that integration of a particular group is impossible, and who castigate, insult and act illiberally towards migrants on account of them not yet being integrated. Such behaviour can only ever provide a bad example of what civil life should look like: Instead, treat others with respect and tolerance wherever possible.
Some popularist movements aim to demonize even the most desperate migrants, resulting in several failures in EU-wide approaches to irregular immigrants that attempted to bring fairness to the way that European countries distribute asylum seekers (i.e., not at all, in most cases).
“The Mediterranean remained deadly [in 2017], with almost 3,000 dead or missing by mid-November 2017. [...] Backed by EU institutions, Italy imposed on NGOs a code of conduct governing rescues following a campaign to delegitimize and even criminalize their efforts. [...]
Member states less affected by direct arrivals remained reluctant to share responsibility for asylum seekers. [...] EU countries continued to return asylum seekers to Italy [and] Greece, under the Dublin Regulation, which requires the first EU country of entry to take responsibility for asylum claims in most cases. [...] The two-year binding plan to relocate almost 100,000 asylum seekers out of Greece and Italy officially ended in September, with only 29,401 people actually transferred. [...] Little progress was made on reform of EU asylum laws.”
In 2004, Cesari estimated that there were over 12 million Muslims in Europe, making up 3% of the population7. Six years later, it had risen to about 15 million8, although due to overall European population growth to 711 million in that year, this was now only 2% of its population. Since then the immigration rate of Muslims doubled, with 7 million arriving from 2010 to 20169, mostly comprised of families fleeing from Syria10. Germany was the top destination for refugees, whereas the UK was the most popular destination for regular working migrants10. By 2016, the total number of Muslims in Europe was 4.9%10. Although the numbers are small, "anxiety about it has been growing"8 amongst some non-Muslims, spurred by negative press reporting and the anti-immigrant slogans of right-wing parties.