The Worst of the Modern Mass Media

By Vexen Crabtree 2009 Jun 13

The mass media, including news outlets and newspapers, are a powerful influence on most people1. Their impressions influence public opinion and democracy itself, so their reach is not to be taken lightly. Aside from the biases that are to be expected from corporations and editors, tabloids in particular portray the world in an unrealistic way. The warnings of media students about the bias of Murdoch's news outlets are longstanding, and in the USA, a University study from 2011 found that those who watched Murdoch's Fox News channel were less knowledgeable about current events even than those who watched no news at all - in other words, Fox News spreads misinformation2. Studies have shown that education, and consuming respectable news instead of trash, results in a more sensible view of the world in all matters, including views on the economy and crime rates. This is also about the tendency for people to accept overly negative and foreboding forecasts of societies' declining moral worth. Research reveals that excessive television dulls the mind, causes stupidity, causes failure at school and perpetuates ridiculous and simplistic stereotypes. Social commentator Robert Carroll warns that "a critical reader must not assume that stories we read in the press or hear on TV are true" even when similar stories are repeated by multiple outlets3. Educating people that TV is fiction, and that violence is wrong, can reduce some of these effects and break the link between TV violence and criminal aggression. The sorry state of populist media in the West is effecting democracy and politics and degrading society. Media studies lecturers teach students that by understanding the power and influence of the news and the mass media, and by understanding its failures, "people are better able to resist the power of 'the media'"1. Read on.


1. Mass Panics Based on Exaggeration

Read this book: Dread: How Fear and Fantasy Have Fueled Epidemics from the Black Death to Avian Flu by Philip Alcabes for another set of tales of mass hysteria, plus the exhortation that this is an important issue because often the hype causes more damage, through social disruption, than the actual events the fears are about!

1.1. The Exaggeration of Public Fears

Downmarket media publications reflect - and exaggerate - many of the fears of society itself. People want their lives to be part of historical drama. The millennium bug, worldwide pandemics, moral panics and fear that society is going wrong all betray humankind's neophobic reactions to progress and change. Newspaper editors pick on this fear and concoct alarmist stories from everyday events and statistics; for example they publish alarmist articles on dangers from mobile phone masts even though there are none. Many editors and media owners have explained the usefulness of fear-mongering and sensationalism - it certainly sells more copy than balanced news. Fears become amplified and made more real by their appearance in headlines, creating a hysteria about a topic whereas in reality things are much better. Always remember that after thousands of hyped-up press warnings, on midnight of the 31st of December 1999, nothing happened.

Aside from society-wide issues, many individuals and families suffer greatly after facing persecution from the popular press. Once accused by the press of a heinous crime, no vindication is gained from being proved innocent - it is very often not even considered newsworthy. Profits are more important than repairing the lives damaged through careless reporting. "The media rarely present the case for the accused. [...] It is more difficult than you might think to withhold judgment on someone who has been pilloried in the press by a one-sided presentation of the evidence. [...] They give the illusion of getting the same story from several different sources, when often they are all getting their information from a single source"3.The problem is that many news outlets report the same case from the same source without the due fact-checking, and without waiting for proper evidence, resulting in many victims.

Also see:

1.2. Perception of Crime Rates in the UK and USA

"Crime stories have long been a staple of news reporting, but crime news doesn't reflect the real world" says Professor Justin Lewis, head of the School of Journalism at Cardiff University, UK. He continues: "Crime is usually reported because it is dramatic or alarming, not because it is typical or likely to have an impact on our lives. So while increases in the crime figures are seen as dramatic, decreases are seen as dull. The first will be headlined, the second glossed over. [...] Many people have assumed in recent years that crime levels are going up when they have actually been going down" (quoted in 2009).4

For example in the 1990s the annual total crime rate was over 15 million crimes per year on average in the UK. This was according to the large-scale British Crime Survey which quizzes people about crime, rather than rely on police or government statistics. In the 2000s the average was closer to 10 million crimes per year. This significant drop has occurred despite an increasing population in the UK. In 2009, 65 per cent of the population were misinformed, or self-deceived, and believed that crimes rates were rising in the country4, even though they've been gradually falling for a long time. In 2013, that figure is still 58%. The UK government's Home Office has itself complained of the mistaken opinions of the masses, noting that in particular, readers of poor quality newspapers are the most likely to have skewed perceptions of crime:

The Home Office says that [...] Crime in England and Wales actually peaked in 1995 and has now fallen by 44% in the last 10 years. 'Despite the number of crimes estimated by the British Crime Survey falling in recent years, comparatively high proportions of people still believe the crime rate to have risen. This is not true.' said Jon Simmons, head of Home Office research and statistics who put part of the problem down to media reporting. 'Readers of national tabloids were around twice as likely [39%] as those who read national broadsheets [19%] to think that the national crime rate has increase 'a lot' in the previous year', he said.

The Guardian (2006)5

That was for 1995-2005, from 2006-2013 the situation has remained unchanged:

Some 58 per cent of people do not believe crime is falling, when the Crime Survey for England and Wales shows that incidents of crime were 19 per cent lower in 2012 than in 2006/07 and 53 per cent lower than in 1995. Some 51 per cent think violent crime is rising, when it has fallen from almost 2.5 million incidents in 2006/07 to under 2 million in 2012.

The Independent (2013)6

The same situation prevails in the USA:

News programs devote a disproportionate amount of air time to violent crimes. Consider that from 1993 to 1998, the homicide rate nationwide dropped by 20 percent. In the same period, coverage of murders on the ABC, CBS, and NBC evening news increased by 721 percent (Vincent Schiraldi, director of the Justice Policy Institute).

"Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking, Skepticism, and Science Exposed!" by Robert Carroll (2011)7

Populist news outlets prefer to headline what sells rather than practice good journalism. And aside from crime rates, populist papers tend to report the negative side of pretty much everything.

1.3. The Pessimism Syndrome

Poor quality press and news reports portray a biased and skewed vision of the world. This is not just a form of gloomy entertainment. It has real-world effects on the life of society. The social academic Michael J Mazarr says that the "media emphasizes the negative and pessimistic side of events and therefore creates perceptual crises of faith where no real crises exists"8. Research shows that the contents of the news that people read does affect their opinions and attitudes whether or not they 'trust' them. "Over 70 per cent of viewers trust television news as fair and accurate, while only one-third trust newspapers"9. Although surveys of trust show that people do not trust much they find in newspapers, the contents of those papers effects their worldviews nonetheless. Despite intellectual doubt, the contents of trashy, poor-quality news is insidious and subconsciously absorbed.

In 1991 the [Center for Media and Public Affairs in Washington, DC] did an exhaustive analysis of network news and New York Times stories on the rapidly recovering U.S. economy. An astounding 96 percent of stories about the general economy were negative in tone; pessimism occupied 87 percent of the stories on real estate, 88 percent of the features on the auto industry, and a perfect 100 percent of stories on manufacturing. [Now] the intervening years have produced one of the longest economic expansions of the postwar era, [it] looks positively foolish.

"Global Trends 2005" by Michael J. Mazarr10

The Bill and Miranda Gates Foundation, a hardworking charity organisation famed for the genuine progress it makes in fighting disease and poverty in Africa, report that in every measurable way, things are better in Africa than ever before, and indeed, around the world:

You might think that such striking progress would be widely celebrated [but instead] I´m struck by how few people think the world is improving, and by how many actually think the opposite - that it is getting worse. [...] The belief that the world is getting worse, that we can´t solve extreme poverty and disease, isn´t just mistaken. It is harmful. It can stall progress. It makes efforts to solve these problems seem pointless. It blinds us to the opportunity we have to create a world where almost everyone has a chance to prosper.

Bill and Miranda Gates Foundation (2014)11

Mazarr describes the classical sociological studies that concentrated on this negative view of the world. It became commonly known as the Pessimism Syndrome. The author continues to consider what solutions there might be to such an inbuilt, subconscious bias.

The first element of the solution involves a demand for more objectivity on the part of the news media. It would be wrong, and simplistic, simply to ask network news broadcasters or weekly newsmagazines to report "happy news"; ignoring problems is no alternative to exacerbating them, and one of the media's most important roles is to uncover social ills. [...] More fundamentally, the real solution to the pessimism syndrome is education. Citizens of developed and developing nations alike need a context to understand information they receive, a basis of objective facts that help moderate the news.

"Global Trends 2005" by Michael J. Mazarr12

Mazarr points out that education is the key to shattering the dark glass that the popular press portrays the world through. Supporting his view are statistics on what people believe about crime rates. The Home Office highlighted an undercurrent of the pessimism syndrome when it complained about the public perception of crime rates: That the trash tabloids are its principal voicepieces and tabloid readers' perception of crime rates are more skewed than readers of better newspapers.

Two major points:

  1. The Pessimism Syndrome affects tabloids and popular opinion, resulting in outlandishly negative slants even on economies or crime trends that are doing well.

  2. Readers of national tabloids fall victim to this mis-reporting more than readers of broadsheet newspapers.

We have seen two factors that help prevent this skewed representation of reality:

  1. Education in general facilitates a more objective and realistic reading of the news.

  2. Avoiding the tabloids and trashy news services results in a more realistic outlook of events and trends.

It is the trashy tabloids and popular weekly magazines that are most damaging, but despite this they remain by far the most successful.

The popular presses have exaggerated events and created "moral panics" about some issues where there was not actually a problem. A sociologist who writes on this topic, Erich Goode, points out the media's active role in the creation of many issues, including: The UFO craze, the dramatizing and wholesale exaggerating of 'epidemics' of violence in school, the phantom of Satanic ritual abuse in the 1960s, the paedophile abduction of children, and even the 'fact' of increasing crime. It has been editorial policy in nearly all titles (except the qualities) since the 1980s to pick on popular fears or worries and to exaggerate and emphasize them with alarming headlines, such as with the millennium bug15. These are (or were) seen in the papers over and over, and all evaporated as the evidence and any supporting statistics failed to materialize.16.

1.4. Baa Baa Black Sheep

Some manias form part of long-term political campaigns by newspapers. Here are two examples from the Daily Mail in its long-term concerted campaign against modernism... the stories were simply untrue, yet many people believed them:

During the Thatcher years, the Mail joined other right-wing newspapers in exposing the 'political correctness' of the 'loony left councils' - Hackney, which said the word 'manholes' was sexist and renamed them 'access chambers'; [...] Haringey, which said the old nursery rhyme 'Baa Baa Black Sheep' was racist and banned it. All these stories were fiction. Which did not stop the Mail running the Baa Baa Black Sheep story again in March 2006, when a nursery class in Oxfordshire was said to have banned it as racist. That was fiction too.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)17

1.5. Flying Saucers Were a Press Invention

It is common sense that the popular press play up and exaggerate stories, including (and especially in previous decades) when it comes to UFOs. The press behaved in the same way as it did with other 'moral panics' - with much sensationalism, and with disregard for evidence. But it wasn't until I read the research of Martin Gardner that I realized just how much of a role imaginative newspaper editors had played in the creation of the UFO craze. It started in 1947, when Kenneth Arnold saw 9 small weather balloons that were strung together, 'flying' in formation in the sky. The papers came up with the idea of 'flying saucers' on their own, and henceforth, enthusiastically published hyped-up articles attributing all unidentified flying objects to mysterious advanced technology and aliens. It was a science-fiction decade, with a popular press to match.

"Alien Life and Planet Earth:
The UFO Craze Was Created by Sensationalist Media and Hoaxes
" by Vexen Crabtree
(2014)

1.6. The Millennium Bug

A concerned researcher, Peter de Jager, attempted to warn industry experts that come year 2000, there might be an issue with the system clocks on Windows computers. This was particularly important for servers and networks. As these underlie much business, as well as national infrastructures in general, the problem certainly needed looking into. Jager received little attention, so, he hyped it up a bit. Then, the world's media took note of his warning, and propelled it into a massive story of worldwide doom and gloom way beyond the scale of the 'possible' risk initially pondered by the computer expert.

The press didn't examine the claim and investigate it. It is a simple procedure to set your system clock forward a few years to see what would happen. They didn't ask Microsoft or Intel about it. If the press had engaged with this kind of journalism - the kind that created the press in the first place - they would have discovered that not much happens when a computer's clock reaches the year 2000 and beyond. They could have then reported that some computer software firms are making outlandish claims in order to sell expensive yet pointless bug-finding software. But that's not what happened and even if they did know the truth, the papers wouldn't have ran it.

By the late 1990s, a final wave of sources joined in as all kinds of maniacs and religious groups cranked up the anxiety to the point of apocalypse. They were led by Gary North of Christian Reconstruction who declared that 'We need times so hard that men will turn to God.' Mr North had got in early, explaining in 1997 [...] 'Month by month, fear will spread. Doom and gloom will sell, as it has never sold before. I have positioned my name, my site, and Christian Reconstruction in the center of this fear. All I have to do now is to report bad news.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)19

Gary North of Christian Reconstruction sounds rather like a modern newspaper editor! If the news services checked their facts, his claims would not have made the news.

When the Millennium Bug's big day came, nothing happened.

Across the world, it was the same non-story. No planes fell out of the sky. No power stations melted down. And the great non-event struck not only those countries which had spent years defending themselves against the bug, but also those which had done little or nothing to prepare for it. There was no story in China and India where, the world's press had warned, governments had been so lax that the bug would disable their power grids and their communications systems with the possibility of riots as the social infrastructure collapsed. There was nothing, too, from Russia and Belarus and Moldova and Ukraine, countries where the threat had been so recklessly ignored that, as Millennium Eve approached, the US State Department had issued formal travel advisories to alert American citizens to the risk to their health and safety if they were to go there. [...]

Most of those journalists who worked late in search of the promised catastrophe wrote nothing at all about the great non-story. [...]

[There was] no truth at all in hundreds of thousands of news reports and background features and confident comment which had run through just about every newspaper and broadcasting outlet in every country on the planet, stories which had been running for years [...]. Encouraged by these stories, some governments had spent fortunes.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)19

The UK government spent between £396 and £788 million fighting the bug, according to various journalists. The USA had spent between $100 billion and $858 billion. Italy done less, and refused to check all of its systems. Nothing happened there in year 2000. Russia, one of the largest countries in the world, spent less on the Millennium Bug than did British Airways, a single company. Russia in January 2000 was no less stable than Russia in December 1999. "It was the same, too", says Nick Davies, "with the estimated 30% of small- and medium-sized businesses who had done nothing to defend against the bug".19

The papers were not then full of reports of how safe and secure the IT infrastructure of the world was. There no reports noticed of how we could trust the programmers who make server and database software, and there were no reports on the irresponsible fear-mongering of the press. If a minister or individual had stolen billions from the government, there would have been a story. But when the press hype up a problem in order to sell papers, causing governments and industry to waste billions, there is not only no story, but there is no regret and no national debate on how the press has come to be so irresponsible. The press, fully commercialised, was happy with the sales, and when the story dried up, so did their interest. For them, there is nothing more to it. The billions of dollars could have been spent on hospitals and railroads, or even on boosting the power of the Press Complaints Commission. There is something wrong with the mass media industry if it can wrought such damage unchallenged.

Related page:

1.7. Horribly Distorted Reporting on UK Immigration

My page on UK immigration (of people, that is, not of UFOs!) highlights role the press plays in whipping the public up into a state of panic about immigration, where the facts of the issue are much more prosaic. As a single example, take the housing of asylum seekers. We are allowed to house them in substandard accommodation, but we have stricter rules for (easily neglectable) old people. The Daily Mail reports20 this with its typical aggression as 'WHAT KIND OF COUNTRY DO WE LIVE IN WHEN FRAIL OLD LADIES ARE TURNED OUT OF THEIR HOME TO MAKE WAY FOR FIT YOUNG ASYLUM SEEKERS' and 'WIDOWS ORDERED OUT, THEN ASYLUM SEEKERS MOVE IN'. This terrible skew misses the facts of the matter completely, and fuels social divisions and intolerance. After examining more examples of this type of reporting, my text on UK immigration notes a cycle:

Some very popular papers report on immigration in entirely skewed and negative terms. The formula is that everything bad can be tied to immigration and foreigners; that both those groups are equated with fraudulent asylum seekers and illegal immigration. It is impossible to reach a sensible view of the truth by relying on the hot-blooded, xenophobic and misleading diatribes of some popular newspapers such as The Daily Mail, the Sunday Times and The Sun. How can the populace ever vote in elections wisely, when their understanding of migration is tainted with this type of horrible bias? The emotional response (even if followed up with more careful news reports seen elsewhere) is hard to replace with balanced tolerance. There is nothing to stop the papers endlessly peddling this type of trash: it sells because it panders to fear and ignorance, and in being sold, the papers increase those two wretched traits.

"UK Immigration, Economics and Pensions" by Vexen Crabtree (2011)

1.8. Winterval - An Invented Attempt to Replace Christmas21

Some low-brow newspaper outlets pushed the idea for many years that the 'political-correctness-gone-mad' idea of Winterval was officialdom's replacement for Christmas. The sensationalist idea was that because Christmas has the word 'Christ' in it, then, modern secular governments and councils could not support it. So, the types of newspapers that peddle anti-foreigner positions took up the story with gusto. The Guardian blogger Kevin Ascott reported that the Daily Mail repeated the myth the most between 1998 and 2011, a total of 44 times. The Times and The Sunday Times together repeated it 40 times, The Sun 31 times, The Express 26 times and The Daily Telegraph 22 times. The Guardian even mentioned it a few times however, it also ran several articles debunking the myth.

After years of perpetuating the Winterval myth, the Daily Mail Corrections and Clarifications column this week admitted it was all made up. It said: 'We stated in an article on 26 September that Christmas has been renamed in various places Winterval. Winterval was the collective name for a season of public events, both religious and secular, which took place in Birmingham in 1997 and 1998. We are happy to make clear that Winterval did not rename or replace Christmas.

National Secular Society Newsline (2011 Nov 11)

The true source of the story is that of one event promoter who combined several winter events (including Christmas) into one Winterval event in order to simplify marketing. From the Guardian:

The myth was not just repeated, either. It was also gradually distorted to become ever more removed from the original misconception. What started as a myth that one council had rebranded or renamed Christmas became a pluralised, open-ended narrative that 'councils' and 'authorities' were rebranding or renaming Christmas as 'Winterval'.

It then mutated from a simple rebranding to a calculated attack on Christianity by 'atheists', 'Muslims', or the 'PC brigade' who feared offending 'other faiths' or 'ethnic minorities'. In one extreme example, the South Wales Echo claimed that Winterval was the result of 'virulent attacks on religion by atheists', which had led to 'new rules such as Christmas being renamed as 'Winterval'. [...]

In all, at least 15 articles directly claim that Christmas was renamed Winterval because of a fear of offending 'other faiths'. At least a further 10 articles directly claim that Winterval was used to avoid offending 'ethnic minorities'.

So now, thanks to perhaps one repetition too far, the Daily Mail has finally admitted that Winterval is a media fiction. But what impact will those few lines of correction have compared with the huge body of journalism that has been repeating it for so long as fact? And, more important, will Melanie Phillips offer her own apology for repeating the myth?

www.guardian.co.uk (2011 Nov 08)

When I first heard the story, I thought 'ridiculous' and didn't believe it was true. I spent a few minutes researching it, and found out that I was right. Therefore, my world-view was not distorted. Journalists broadcast their opinions to others, and it is downright criminal that failures in basic fact-checking can be so endemic.

1.9. Gainesville, Florida, USA 22

I could not tell the following tale without having the truth of it questioned - and for this reason, and because Robert Carroll has already told it perfectly adequately, I am going to quote the entire spectacle as he described it:

Book CoverThe university town of about 100,000 was sent into a panic on August 26, 1990, however, when the news media reported that two young women had been mutilated and murdered in their apartments. The next day another young woman's body was found. She too had been mutilated and murdered. The following day two more bodies were found, a young man's and a young woman's. All the dead had been college students. [...] The news media reported the grisly events in graphic detail. Fear gripped Gainesville's citizens as well as thousands of parents whose sons and daughters were students at the University of Florida. [...] The media reported that the police had arrested their prime suspect in the gruesome killings. A University of Florida freshman, 18-year-old Edward Lewis Humphrey, who was described as unbalanced and violent, had been taken into custody. Earlier that summer, Humphrey had been kicked out of the apartment complex where the last two victims had been found. His roommates said he was weird. It was reported that he had thrown a chair at the apartment manager when he tried to get Humphrey to leave the premises. Humphrey had been in trouble with the law before and had a history of bizarre behavior, like walking into people's apartments uninvited and peeping through their curtains when they locked him out. There were also several reports of him behaving violently toward different people, including his grandmother. [...] The media reported that Humphrey had been diagnosed with manic depression - also known as bipolar disorder - and had exhibited strange behavior after he had stopped taking his medication. There was also a rumor that he had been romantically interested in one of the victims. The news media reported that he dressed in military-type fatigues and went on late-night reconnaissance missions carrying a hunting knife.

Humphrey was never charged with the Gainesville murders, however, because there was no evidence linking him to the crimes. [...] Bail was set at $1,000,000, which is a bit steep for someone accused of hitting a grandmother who declines to press charges against her grandson. [...] The police actually had several other suspects, but the only name they released to the media was Humphrey's. His mug shot appeared in the papers and on television [... and the] million dollar bail indicated that somebody in power thought he was the killer or at least wanted the public to think he was the killer. The media apparently didn't think it was odd that it took the police several days before they could persuade a judge to let them search Humphrey's apartment and his grandmother's house. The searches yielded nothing linking Humphrey to the murders, but they did manage to frighten his grandmother to the point where an ambulance had to be called. [...]

Every day from August 30 (the day he was arrested) through September 11 Humphrey was front page news. [...] In the end, Humphrey was tried and found guilty of battery - even though his grandmother testified that he never hit her. He was sentenced to 22 months in a state hospital. [...] Before Humphrey had been indicted, the media had camped out around his grandmother's house. She died of a heart attack while arguing with a reporter who had been pounding on her door, demanding that she answer questions.

Four years after Humphrey had been tried and convicted by the press, Danny Rolling pled guilty to the Gainesville murders. He was put to death by lethal injection on October 25, 2006.

"Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking, Skepticism, and Science Exposed!" by Robert Carroll (2011)23

The media destroyed Edward Lewis Humphrey's life - with their campaign against him based on the simple fact that he was a mental case and had a previous history where he was accused of once beating his grandmother. The journalist who terrorized his grandmother until she died of a heart attack, and the rest of his colleagues from multiple papers who spread these stories - as they often do, time and time again - are the true bad guys.

2. The Commercialisation of News

2.1. The Centralisation of News Sources

A massive series of corporate takeovers has seen, over a few decades, nearly all news products coming under the banner of just a few companies. The shrewdest companies are those that have made massive staff cuts, for example, preferring to obtain news through 'monitoring' of television and through a very small number of wire agencies, rather than directly do journalism themselves.

The process is: (a) commercialisation, (b) efficiency-drives (drastic staff cuts), which lead to (c) churnalism. As the giants gobble up local, smaller, media and news outlets and apply their staff-cutting regime to them, news becomes more and more centralised. In 1992 in the UK, locals were owned by about two hundred companies. There had already been a decline. "By 2005, according to the media analysts Mintel, ten corporations alone owned 74% of them"24.

Journalism in the world's most powerful country is deep in the same trap. The American media critic Ben Bagdikian has traced the corporate takeover. In 1997, he wrote about the corporations producing American's newspapers, magazines, radio, television, books and films: 'With each passing year... the number of controlling firms in all these media has shrunk: from 50 corporations in 1984 [...] to less than 20 in 1993. In 1996 the number of media corporations with dominant power in society is closer to 10.' By 2004, he found, the US media were dominated by just five companies: Time Warner, Disney, Murdoch's News Corporation, Bertelsmann of Germany and Viacom.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)24

In 1982, fifty corporations owned almost all of the major media outlets in the United States: they owned 1,787 daily newspapers, 11,000 magazines, 9,000 radio stations, 1,000 television stations, 2,500 book publishers, and seven major movie studios. Five years later, ownership of all these media outlets had shrunk to twenty-nine corporations. By 1999, nine corporations owned the lot (McChesney 1999).

"Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking, Skepticism, and Science Exposed!" by Robert Carroll (2011)25

The five leading providers in global news are Al-Jazeera English, with 100 million viewers globally (but not in the US); France 24, with French and Arabic versions; CNN, (double Al-Jazeera's audience and presenting an explicitly American news agenda); Russia Today, often state-biased, according to commentators but never conceded by the organization itself; and BBC World, viewed by analysts as the most impartial.

"Media Studies: The Basics" by Julian McDougall (2012)26

Now that investigators and journalists have been massively reduced in number, where does news come from? The answer is more centralisation. The UK now gets most of its news via a centralised depository known as a wire agency: the Press Association. This body gathers news, and shifts it on to broadcasters at high speed. Although its job isn't to check facts or investigate stories, papers tend to merely accept and rewrite wire copy. It's not just the UK - as we have seen, the commercialisation of news is a global affair - "most of the newspapers and broadcasters and websites in the world rely for most of their international news, pictures and video on just two wire agencies - Associated Press (AP) and Reuters"24. Dr Chris Paterson used software that was initially designed to spot plagiarism online, to trace the flow of global news. There is an ever-increasing quantity of news that flows automatically, without human editors. He found that by 2001 the most popular media websites were duplicating 50% of their material from the two big wire agencies and a smaller one, Agence Grance-Presse. Half was duplicated word-for-word! On half of these mass media outlets, over half was routinely copied from wire. This doesn't even include output that comes from wire agencies but is rewritten: in all cases, these sources of information are simply not checked for truth or validity. Pure disinformation can flow straight into the public consciousness. An article in The Economist on the future of news services notes this automation:

The Wal-Marts of the news world are online portals like Yahoo! and Google News, which collect tens of thousands of stories. Some are licensed from wire services like Reuters and the Associated Press. [...] They are cheap to run: Google News does not even employ an editor.

The Economist (2009)27

2.2. Churnalism

The new brand of commercial owners transformed journalism from an investigative enterprise that sought to uncover truth, raise issues and debate politics, turned into an industry of mass-produced "churnalism", operating as cheaply as possible. News speeds through news factories manned by overworked journalists who have little time for research or investigation. The total number of stories processed by journalists in a day always exceeds the number of actual human beings talked to about those stories. Workers rarely get out of the office, and, the numbers of phone calls made are scrutinized by time- and money- conscious bosses.

This process has affected all normal newspaper titles, even the 'qualities'. The best-quality titles still had PR and/or wire copy in 80% of their stories (although in 20% of those contained substantial additional commentary). Yet only 1% of these stories admitted their true source. Even the best titles could only produce 12% of their stories themselves.28

In the best papers, 70% of the important facts relied upon by stories went completely unchecked, and only 12% were checked properly. This isn't just an issue with newspapers. The Cardiff researchers who done this investigation for Nick Davies, over half of all mainstream broadcast news is also wire (via the PA) and public relations material. The attraction of PA and PR, writes Davies, is not that they are better sources, but that they are cheaper. "It is no longer a matter of independent newspapers competing with each other to produce the best stories, but of mutually dependent newspapers working in tandem to produce more or less the same stories - stories which may or may not be 'the best'. Or honest. Or accurate".28

2.3. Profit Seeking: Tailing News Production to Make it Sellable

Most news outlets purchase news from news agencies. The most well-known of them are The Associated Press and Reuters. Even if they often intend to supply unbiased news to the world, social scientists know that multiple human factors come to distort the process. A selection bias leads to agencies only collecting news which they think meshes within the commonly accepted protocols of what news should be, and, even worse, news is selected because it is sellable.

However, you won't be surprised to read that analysts and academics take a sceptical view of this and argue that, although the news agencies do not explicitly share the news agendas of the Western networks, because they know that Fox, CNN, Sky and the BBC are their main 'clients', they will provide news that they perceive to be 'customer facing'. If that's the case, then news provision becomes circular, and the concern is that non-Western events are marginalized by never even becoming news.

"Media Studies: The Basics" by Julian McDougall (2012)29

Combined with the dwindling numbers of journalists and the much greater volume of news that the produce (churnalism), this means that our news is more decentralized and biased than ever, but in a system where each individual player cannot do much about it nor even see the selection bias in order to avoid it if they wished. Not only does this bias reduce the style and scope of news sources, but, when the news story makes its way to a news outlet, it then has to content with the editors and policy of its news sponsor.

Analysis of 32 news articles by researcher John McManus found that over half of them (18) were misleading. Not only that, but they were misleading in a certain way: "to increase the story's appeal, help cut down the cost of reporting or oversimplify a story so it could be told in two minutes" (Carroll 2004)30.

Sensationalism replaced critical thinking in a race to halt the declining sales of newspapers. In abandoning truth-seeking as the cause of story-telling, journalism became a source of misinformation. Nick Davies quotes the news editor of the Sunday Express in a leaked memo from 2003:

We are aiming to have six sex stories a week. In an ideal world, we should have a "cabinet minister affair" story. Sex and scandal at the highest level of society always sells well [...]. We must make the readers cross: the appalling state of the railways, the neglect of the Health Service, the problem of teenage pregnancies, the inability of bureaucrats to get enough done properly, etc, etc.

Jim Murray, Sunday Express news editor (2003)31

The combination of commercialism, staff cuts, and profit seeking leads to sensationalist reporting without regards for whether the underlying story is true. It has seen news change focus from accurate exposés and public engagement, to cheap stories and PR along "if we can sell it, we'll tell it" lines. It makes news desks easy to manipulate, as long as you send them something hot or easy to broadcast. The job- cuts and efficiency-drives of commercialist owners has meant that overworked staff do not have time to check stories and commercialist owners will run lines for commercial gain without caring about spreading lies and disinformation.

Markets do not have democratic intent at their core. When markets fail or come under threat or simply become too bullish, ethical journalistic practice is swept aside in pursuit of competitive gain and financial stability.

Fenton (2011)32

This loss of journalistic rigor is affecting all of society, as much of the populace (as we will see) gain their knowledge of politics and current events from such sources.

3. The Press Freedom Index: Which Countries are Most Censored? Which Countries are Most Free?33

Most Free
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
4Luxembourg99.0
5Andorra99.0
6Denmark99.0
7Liechtenstein99.0
8New Zealand99.0
9Iceland99.0
10Sweden99.0
11Estonia99.0
12Austria99.0
13Jamaica99.0
14Switzerland99.0
15Ireland99.0
16Czech Rep.99.0
17Germany99.0
18Costa Rica99.1
19Namibia99.1
20Canada99.1
21Belgium99.1
22Poland99.1
23Slovakia99.1
24Cyprus99.1
25Cape Verde99.1
Data Source
Least Free
178Eritrea100.0
177Korea, N.100.0
176Turkmenistan99.9
175Syria99.9
174Somalia99.9
173Iran99.9
172China99.9
171Vietnam99.8
170Cuba99.8
169Sudan99.8
168Yemen99.8
167Laos99.8
166Djibouti99.8
165Equatorial Guinea99.8
164Bahrain99.7
163Uzbekistan99.7
162Saudi Arabia99.6
161Sri Lanka99.6
160Rwanda99.6
159Kazakhstan99.6
158Pakistan99.6
157Egypt99.5
156Belarus99.5
155Azerbaijan99.5
154Swaziland99.5
Data Source

Scores are calculated according to indicators including pluralism - the degree to which opinions are represented in the media, media independence of authorities, self-censorship, legislation, transparency and the infrastructure that supports news and information, and, the level of violence against journalists which includes lengths of imprisonments. The index "does not take direct account of the kind of political system but it is clear that democracies provide better protection for the freedom to produce and circulate accurate news and information than countries where human rights are flouted."

"The same three European countries that headed the index last year hold the top three positions again this year. For the third year running, Finland has distinguished itself as the country that most respects media freedom. It is followed by the Netherlands and Norway. [At the bottom are the] same three as last year - Turkmenistan, North Korea and Eritrea".

It must be noted that press freedom is not an indicator of press quality and the press itself can be abusive; the UK suffers in particular from a popular brand of nasty reporting that infuses several of its newspapers who are particularly prone to running destructive and often untrue campaigns against victims. The Press Freedom Index notes that "the index should in no way be taken as an indicator of the quality of the media in the countries concerned".

For other international statistical comparisons, see:

4. The Worst of Society

4.1. Trash Culture & Mass Media Products

There is a massive market for mass media products aimed at the low-attention-span trash culture types. Male-dominated trashy tabloids depict female nudes, fictional short stories of the most banal and stupid kind, advice columns designed to shock rather than educate, and news stories that are widely known to be entertaining rather than true. The Sun, The Star, The Daily Sport, for example, are three of most popular "news" papers, and almost entirely devoted to the decadent content just mentioned. Television has become the resident priest of Trash, nearly all programs cater for people with short-attention spans. Adverts are quick and shocking, programs are simplistic and moronic. Although more educated content exists it is unpopular. Thankfully the government takes a strong hand in monitoring domestic channels for content and worth, otherwise I suspect local TV would be almost entirely lost to stupidity & contentless trashy entertainment.

British soap operas are famously violent, angry, shocking, melancholic tragedies depicting casts of characters that are all stupid, short-sighted, emotionally-challenged failures who seem allergic to honest, good relationships and intellectual pursuits. The masses are taught every way to fail a relationship and shown none of the compassions or developed attitudes expected of responsible adult relations. Petty crime, short-tempers and stupidity on the TV soaps reflect perfectly the mentality of trash culture, the self-perpetuating cause-and-affect cycle of this coupling is hard to break without serious top-down change.

4.2. Enslavement - TV Causes Stupidity

It's too bad that stupidity isn´t painful. Ignorance is one thing, but our society thrives increasingly on stupidity. It depends on people going along with whatever they are told. The media promotes a cultivated stupidity as a posture that is not only acceptable but laudable.

LaVey (1987)34

One of the reasons I highlight the effect on mass media on democracy is that the media is a big influence on most of us, frequently greater than both peer pressure and parental controls. How many parents sit their children in front of the TV in their most formative years just to keep them from being a 'nuisance'? It thoroughly informs all of us with specific cultural mores that are stoic, commercialist, short-term, thrill-seeking, unintelligent and moronic. Not only that, but sociologists have found that we all watch more TV than we think we do35, and, it influences us and our opinions even when we are guarding against it..

The chief problem of human beings is passivity [...]. If you watch television all evening, or read too long, you feel a 'freezing' of your mind; it congeals; your eyes become capable only of a blank, dull state.

"The Occult" by Colin Wilson (1971)36

Some hold that this effect of passive light entertainment is cultured by the powers that be specifically for the purpose of pacifying populaces. As "modern free time" tends to lend itself to citizen activism and the size of the overall population increases, it is necessary to keep people occupied, and TV is ideal for this purpose. There are many sociological investigations into finding out the effects of the popular press on peoples and groups. "One view, that of Theodor Adorno and the Frankfurt school, is that the popular media exist to dull people's minds and get them to accept the work and consumption patterns that are needed to sustain capitalism"37. They argue however that people are not taken in by such a simple ploy. People 'take their own meanings and pleasures from the popular press'; people may seem passive whilst watching and reading, but, their imagination and subconscious form their own interpretations. I imagine the same process happening when people imagine what the 'real meaning' is behind obscure song lyrics. You can nearly always construct a more interesting story than the songwriter hirself was telling. Yet such passivity still numbs the mind's creativity, and the effects of this make for more docile and dumber citizens.

They don't call it the idiot box for nothing. Three studies suggest that watching too much TV makes you stupid, at least as measured by school grades and test scores. In the longest-running study [by Bob Hancox's team at the university of Otago in New Zealand, ] children who watched the least TV between ages 5 and 11 were the most likely to graduate from university, while those who watched the most TV at ages 13-15 were most likely to drop out of school. [...] Two US studies [...] draw similar conclusions. [...] Persuading children to watch quality TV is easier said than done, says Barry Milne, who worked on the New Zealand study. "The type of TV kids actually watch is not good for them".

New Scientist (2005)38

The counterculturalist and founder of the Church of Satan, Anton LaVey, explains how TV has replaced the modern dark ages Church:

In previous centuries, the Church was the great controller, dictating morality, stifling free expression and posing as conservator of all great art and music. Today we have television dictating fashions, thoughts, techniques but doing it so palatably that no one notices. Instead of "sins" to keep people in line, we have fear of being judged unacceptable by our peers (by not wearing the right running shoes, not drinking the right kind of beer or wearing the wrong kind of deodorant), and fear of imposed insecurity concerning our own identities. Borrowing the Christian sole salvation concept, television tells people that only through exposure to TV can the sins of alienation and ostracism be absolved.

"The Devil's Notebook" by Anton LaVey (1992)39

4.3. Violent Films and Violent Actions

There is an on-going debate in the popular press about whether violent TV causes violent behaviour. This study is one of the classic areas of study in sociology, and findings have largely found that viewing TV violence does indeed cause aggressive behaviour.

Leonard Eron and Rowell Huesmann (1980, 1985) found that violence viewing among 875 8-year-olds correlated with aggressiveness [even after checking for other causes]. Moreover, when they restudied these individuals as 19-year-olds, they discovered that viewing violence at age 8 modestly predicted aggressiveness at age 19. [...] Aggression followed viewing, not the reverse. They confirmed these findings in follow-up studies of 758 Chicago-area and 220 Finnish youngsters (Huesmann & others, 1984). [...] They found that at age 30, those men who as children had watched a great deal of violent television were more likely to have been convicted of a serious crime. [...]

The convergence of evidence is striking. 'The irrefutable conclusion', said a 1993 American Psychological Association youth violence commission, is 'that viewing violence increases violence.' [...] This [effect] is strongest when an attractive person commits justified, realistic violence that goes unpunished and that shows no pain or harm (Donnerstein, 1998).

"Social Psychology" by David Myers (1999)40

Educating children that TV is inaccurate and fictional reduces the aggression that children display as a result of violence programs41. The psychologist Richard Gross confirms this in his overview of the types of studies involved:

Field experiment [studies are those] in which children or teenagers are assigned to view violent or non-violent programs for a period of a few days or weeks. Measures of aggressive behaviour, fantasy, attitude, etc. are taken before, during and after the period of controlled viewing. [...] Almost without exception, they confirm the results of laboratory studies - in general, children who view violent TV are more aggressive than those who do not. [...]

The longitudinal panel study [can] tell us about cause and effect and which normally uses sound sampling methods. The aim is to discover relationships which exist over time between TV viewing and social attitudes and behaviour and so it is concerned with the cumulative influence of TV - [...] for example, in a 20-year follow-up of 400 children, heavy exposure to TV violence at age eight was associated with violent crime and spouse and child abuse at age 30, at all socioeconomic and intelligence levels (Huesmann and Eron, 1984). Sims and Gray (1993, cited in Newson, 1994), in a paper presented to the House of Lords Broadcasting Group, pointed to a vast world literature linking heavy exposure to media violence to subsequent aggressive behaviour. [...]"

[In contrast:] "According to Gunter and McAleer (1990), studies have shown that portrayals of kindness, generosity, being helpful and socially responsible can exert both short-term and longer term influences on similar behaviours among children.

"Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour" by Richard Gross (1996)42

4.4. The Embrace of Ignorance

We have a social instinct that inclines us to tell interesting stories. Cognitive processes in our brains tend to make us hear the more exciting and out-of-the-ordinary aspects of a story. People automatically attempt to tell a story in a more exciting, immediate and entertaining way than when they themselves were told the story originally. This inclination towards entertainment is described by the social psychologist Thomas Gilovich:

Book CoverOur appetite for entertainment is enormous, and it has a tremendous impact on the tales we tell and the stories we want to hear. The quest for entertainment is certainly one of the most significant sources of distortion and exaggeration in everyday communication.

"How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life" by Thomas Gilovich (1991)43

The billions of people who rely on the mass media for information have suffered the worst injuries of all under a bombardment of falsehood, distortion and propaganda.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)44

The West's popular press generally divides publications into those aimed at the realists and intellectuals ('qualities'), and those designed to titillate the masses. Not all journalists or papers are about churning out crowd-pleasing entertainment and crowd-stirring negativism about the world. Many outlets still aim to educate and inform their readers, and to reject untruth by doing investigation into stories, rejecting public relations spins, and above all, trying to give a balanced picture of the world. However, this is not what the public wants. The newspaper industry is in trouble. High-brow and quality newspapers are faring far worse than downmarket titles - the three worst-quality tabloids (The Daily Star, the Daily Express and The Sun) were the only papers to increase their sales between 1990 and 20029 (the latest date for which I have statistics).

The increase in sales of trash tabloids is indicative of a cycle: they sell more, because trash culture is growing, and, trash culture is growing because of the successful marketing of trash-targeted mass media. Marketing expert Winston Fletcher said in 1998 that what wins readers is "scandals, misfortunes and disasters"9. This trend is also the third-biggest problem facing democracy in the West, as the shallow issues that the press whip the public into a frenzy about become the ones people vote on.

So, what about outlets that represent the better end of the mass market media? A funny story from Nick Davies serves as a warning to us not to trust in their ability to break this cycle. Two insiders argued for more meaningful content:

Book CoverThe BBC's occasional media critic, Raymond Snoddy, in a review of week's BBC output in Jul 2006 [began] by querying the fact that the deaths of two British soldiers in Afghanistan had been knocked into second place in the news by coverage of the tearful resignation of the England football captain, David Beckham. The former BBC war correspondent Martin Bell condemned the decision, saying: 'The BBC has set itself adrift in a whirlpool of trivia.'

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)31

Snoddy then highlighted a viewer...

... who had complained that, by comparison with ITV news, the BBC was spending too much time on each story and going into too much detail, and as a result, she said, it had failed, unlike ITV, to run an item about a new film, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. There you have it: Martin Bell, the veteran journalist, speaking up for editorial judgement; and the consumer speaking up for less information and more entertainment, even if it is nothing more than PR. In a commercial culture, the viewer has more power than the journalist.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)31

For how long can media outlets survive with their integrity intact if they have to rely on sales, and what sells is low-quality sensationalism? Thankfully, the BBC is state-sponsored so can resist such pressures. Other outlets survive through specialisation, by catering to specific audiences who already seek what the newspaper specifically sells. Unfortunately, this means that consumers can (and do, en masse) choose to involve themselves only in the shallowest news and entertainment, and remain completely ignorant of the actual true events and debates of the world.

5. Politics and Democracy

5.1. Mass Media is an Important Part of Democracy

Book CoverThree-quarters of people identify television as the most important single source of information about politics.

"Politics UK" by Bill Jones (2004)45

Research shows that the information that news provides becomes the building blocks for our political attitudes.

Professor Justin Lewis4

[John Dewey (1859-1952)] believed that the emergence of a modern mass media had the potential to improve the conditions and operations of American democracy, if structured with those ends in mind, but he worried that the particular shape of the American media system, governed primarily by commercial interests, would have a much more negative influence.

Julian McDougall (2012)46

The press has long served as an important part of democracy. Its role is to investigate the truth when politicians try to hide it, and to uncover government's failings. It is a protector of the people against those with power. Without effective mass media the populace cannot cast informed votes. The Economist looked at the decline in sales of newspapers and worried about the collapse of the newspaper industry:

News is not just a product: the press is the fourth estate, a pillar of the polity. Journalists investigate and criticize governments, thus helping voters decide whether to keep them or sack them. Autocracies can function perfectly well without news, but democracies cannot. Will the death of the daily newspaper [...] damage democracy?

The Economist (2009)27

The effect of inaccurate and hyped mass media on the working of democracy is palpable and has already been voiced by professionals: Professor of Law M. Loughlin points out that the founders of modern political theory believed that deliberation (which requires intelligence and knowledge) is a key aspect of democracy47. The lack of intelligence in the content of poor quality media has an effect on the quality of democracy; leaders are forced to circumvent the wills of the masses simply because the masses are misinformed and have been prompted to care about shallow issues by the press and TV.

Professor Lewis continues by comparing the MPs' expenses scandal of 2009 with global warming and terrorism: the two short term issues are reported with much more drama because they are immediate, simple and timely, whereas global warming largely escapes the news (except the odd scandal) because it is complicated.

The media thereby set the agenda in shaping our concerns. When the MPs' expenses story dominated the news in the summer of 2009, public concern and anger about the issue followed, with ramifications across Westminster. [...] At its best, this allows us to hold our representatives to account. The danger is that our political priorities are shaped less by an informed analysis of the threats that face us than by a news agenda that favours some stories over others. [...]

The gradual nature of climate change fits awkwardly with the requirements of a 24-hour news cycle. Its impact may be potentially profound, but the time lag between cause and effect is difficult to communicate in news terms. [...] Sir David King, former chief scientific adviser to the government, pointed out that the threat of terrorism is likely to be far less significant than climate change. And yet terrorism, which combines politics with drama and violence, 'fits' the requirements of our news culture perfectly.

Professor Justin Lewis
Head of School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University4

Although the mass media, and in particular, investigative journalism, is a great boon to democracy, if the coverage is too dumbed-down, then democracy is undermined instead of boosted.

5.2. A Lack of Meaningful Coverage

Most mass media outlets have ceased to cover political current events fairly, accurately, adequately or in some cases, at all. Coverage focuses on side-issues of politics: politician's sex lives are covered way out of proportion to their intellectual accomplishments. In addition to the almost absolute dumbing-down of political coverage is a reduction in the amount of coverage at all aside from scandals. In other words, coverage is almost entirely negative and pessimistic. Parliament is hardly covered at all - the vast majority of debates, motions and questions go completely unreported. Nick Davies, the media analyst and critic, points out that this is largely due to the staff-cuts and commercialisation of news. In place of journalism, many outlets now recycle government material and PR.

Book CoverMedia monitoring of Parliament has collapsed. As a Labour shadow minister in 1993, Jack Straw published an analysis of the coverage of parliamentary debates which showed that the major dailies had been running up to eight hundred lines of copy a day, more or less steadily from 1933 until 1988 when there was a 'sudden decline' to less than one hundred lines by 1992. This is, in part, because the grocers shifted their focus to stories which were more likely to sell their papers. But it was also the result of the now familiar destruction of reporting staff.

The number of specialist journalists based in Parliament has been slashed to ribbons. Until the 1980s, all the major dailies had teams of reporters covering the chamber; The Times alone had sixteen gallery reporters. Now [...] only twenty-three of the 1,200 local newspapers still have their own staff there (although some file to more than one title). [...]

Chris Moncrieff, who has covered Parliament for PA since 1962, told us: 'We have so much monitoring of radio and TV, far more now than ten years ago, that we have less time to get stories ourselves." He added that PA now covers far fewer political meetings and speeches than it used to and relies far more on government press releases. 'They've won,' he said. 'If they put out in advance a copy of the speech, then we will not go. We now print what they want us to print. We go to far fewer meetings or not at all.'

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)48

5.3. Destroying Politics With Sensationalism and Lies

It was the year 1836 that saw the first cheap newspaper appear (La Presse) that depended upon a readership that was not an intellectual or class élite of some kind. Mass media had arrived. Politicians worried about the destabilizing effects of the misinformation and sensationalism that news papers frequently contained.

The growth of such powerful engines of information or misinformation inevitably had large political implications. [...] Conservative fears that an irresponsible trouble-making press, given enough rope, might become a danger to political stability and public order, seemed fully justified. [...] Opposition papers were more often than not factious, irresponsible and sometimes dangerously violent.

"The Ascendancy of Europe 1815-1914" by M S Anderson (1985)49

Close to two centuries later, and not much has changed: mass produced cheap newspapers remain an anathema to civility. In the wake of the media frenzy against John Prescott, early 2006, David Aaronovitch wrote about the role of the media in precipitating crises where there should have been none, and rightly labels it "story inflation", as was also the case with the media's attack on the Home Secretary, Mr Clarke:

The voters' problem is how well they are being served by the present self-perpetuating media fire-storm. I'll give an example from the Clarke imbroglio. Several newspapers have featured the call for Mr Clarke to resign, from a woman who was raped by a man who had been released from prison after serving a previous sentence - but who had not been considered for deportation. The details of the case were shocking, but somehow the fact that Mr Clarke was not Home Secretary at the time either of man's release, nor of the subsequent rape, passed the papers by. Readers were left with the clear impression that all this had happened on Charlie's watch. It hadn't. [...]

He's doomed, say the media, if we go on about it. He will look too ridiculous to carry on. So let's go on about it. I thought it was wrong and hypocritical then and I think so now. [...] Prezza [Mr Prescott], whose adultery is no one's business, becomes by degrees Prezza the serial predator (the Daily Mail) and then Prezza the Unprofessional. It's the way David Mellor - a good minister if an occasionally unlovely man - was forced from office a decade ago.

David Aaronovitch (2006)51

If a group of citizens got together and conspired to cause the downfall of a politician in such a way, they would surely be committing a crime. The press enjoys more freedom to indulge in harder tactics, because one function of the press in a democracy is to expose things that need to be exposed for the public interest. But now news outlets are largely commercial, 'public interest' has been replaced by interest in profits. And political scandals sell, so, they are churned out without regard for their underlying truth. If this sounds serious for democracy, then try the next example:

5.4. Rupert Murdoch and News Corps

Rupert Murdoch began his 'media empire' in Australia in the 1950s. But growth, although great, was slower than he liked. Australian law was preventing him expanding his empire and moving its assets around internationally. It turned out to his advantage that media moguls, who influence the public, can also bribe politicians.

In 1968 the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, 'Black Jack' McEwen, struck a deal with Rupert Murdoch to destroy the political career of a rival. He had the Secret Service investigate an associate of Billy McMahon, the next potential leader of the Liberal party. They found nothing. 'Black Jack' then contacted his friend Rupert Murdoch and told him about the existence of the file. Murdoch's paper ran the story that Billy McMahon's close friend was a Japanese agent.52

The biggest story of the day should have been about the conspiracy of Murdoch and Black Jack McEwen to overthrow a party leader - that scandal would have lost the conspirator's their jobs, reputations, and maybe even earned them a criminal record. Journalism is a broken enterprise, however, when the ones behind the spreading of propaganda and lies are the journalists themselves. Even if there were bodies to expose the misadventures of journalists, their pronouncements would always come too late, after the public has been made subject to disinformation. What are needed are stronger international laws against the public spreading of disinformation.

Murdoch used his political ally to have the law changed (in 1969) to benefit his business52. Nick Davies devotes more than a few pages to the historical entanglements between Murdoch and politicians, reporting on how he uses his gullible readers to play games with politics:

This is how the man works. He uses his media outlets as tools to secure political favours, and he uses those political favours to advance his business. But his politics are never as big as his wallet. [...] When he wanted the left-wing Gough Whitlam to become Prime Minister of Australia, he abused the Australian to help him and then sought favours from Whitlam in return. Three years later, when he decided that the right-wing Malcolm Fraser could do more for his business interests, he abused the Australian again with great crudeness to support the bloodless coup which ousted Whitlam.

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)52

Murdoch engaged in the same political chess, complete with stories aimed at deluding the masses in Britain, dealing with Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Woodrow Wyatt and then Tony Blair. Same in other countries.

Book CoverRupert Murdoch [...] has come to acquire for his News Corporation a vast array of newspapers, TV channels, radio stations, film companies and websites. In the UK he owns a large amount of BSkyB. [...] In July 2011, News Corporation owned a significant share in ITV and BSkyB as well as The Sun and The Times. In the US, Murdoch owns the Fox Broadcasting Company, 20th Century Fox, The New York Post, Dow Jones, HarperCollins, National Geographic and a range of pay TV channels. As well as MySpace the multinational also owns significant media activity in Germany, Italy, Australia, China and broader South East Asia and India. The dividends amount to about $30 billion. [...] With its global reach News Corporation has always been the subject of much concern [and Rupert Murdoch has] become so powerful that he now has influence over the way political events in particular are reported.

When the phone-hacking scandal came to public attention, UK politicians clamoured to condemn Murdoch when months before (and for years preceding) that had allowed a 'cosy relationship' to work in Murdoch's favour.

"Media Studies: The Basics" by Julian McDougall (2012)53

5.5. The Danger of Cheap Journalism

Far from being a reporter on politics, many papers and news outlets become easily malleable as their busy workers release easy stories rather than accurate ones. Journalism becomes an easy tool to wield for those who want to spread lies, rather than an investigative force exposing those who spread lies.

The effect "is not merely to mislead its readers about the state of the world but to distort the whole political process"

"Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)18

[Nick Davies] painted a damning picture of journalistic practices that seemed to be alarmingly borne out by the phone-hacking scandal of 2011.

"Media Studies: The Basics" by Julian McDougall (2012)54

When the Irish voted against an EU initiative, the Belgian Prime Minister, Yves Leterme, blamed British newspapers for spreading 'wild stories' about Europe55. It is not only individual politicians who have their careers unfairly damaged, it can be entire political entities. It seems that British journalists consider the truth to be worthwhile only to the extent that people buy it. The more people who buy it, the more factual it becomes.

With the press operating like this, what chance does the general public have in learning about true politics? Not much!

My text on democracy discusses the place of a free press, plus the dangers that it will undermine democracy by misleading the public, and therefore causing policy to have to be produced against the misguided wishes of the populace:

6. Fake Lobby Groups and Public Relations

Most truths are so naked that people feel sorry for them and cover them up, at least a little bit.

Legendary broadcaster Ed Murrow (1908-1965).
Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations

Modern journalists work at breakneck speed to process stories as fast as possible. Much of this news comes from trusted wire agencies, but these also rely on public relations (PR) material, as do the news outlets themselves. Most news services rely heavily on PR material in order to rapidly produce a stream of news. Because of these pressures, public relations firms and commercial companies are having a heyday and find it easy to insert material into news media. News outlets get cheap, professional-looking news at no cost. In general, over half of all news stories are mostly PR or contain substantial PR-sourced material56. Journalists themselves do not check the facts or figures of such inputs, nor admit in the articles themselves that PR material is the true source of the information, so the news often appears unbiased56. For example in 1991, CBS Evening News, USA, aired a video source from the Institute for Injury Reduction showing that cars' safety belts are actually unsafe and cause more damage than they prevent - an idea which managed to catch the attention of the public. Did the journalists of that news station check the source of this video to see who it was that was passing them the information? No. They didn't. And it turned out that the Institute for Injury Reduction is actually a lobby group supported by lawyers who make money from clients who were suing automobile companies for crash-related injuries57. Too many journalists are engaged in an unthinking, uncritical conveyor-belt of news, and old journalistic practices such as fact-checking and critical thinking have proven to get in the way of corporate efficiency. Powerful commercial lobbies use this weakness to pervert public opinion.

Vice President Dick Cheney complained in an interview with conservative media commentator Armstrong Williams about bias in the press. Cheney was absolutely right about bias in the press. The Bush administration had paid Williams $240,000 to promote the No Child Left Behind Act in broadcasts and in print. Williams lost his job with Tribune Media Services when it was revealed that he was a hired propagandist producing covert puff pieces for the Bush administration. [...] Many bloggers and websites that appear to be independent are actually fronts.

"Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking, Skepticism, and Science Exposed!" by Robert Carroll (2011)58

In the 1950s the smoking lobby created a range of innocent-sounding and scientific-sounding groups in order to discredit government information about the dangers of smoking. Oil and petrol lobbies have spent fortunes on the same PR tricks, as have food industry lobbies. They produce scientific reports engineered by their own scientists, which serve to boost their own industries by deceiving the public. The Global Climate Coalition was founded in the around 1990, and funded "scientists and writers who would provide disinformation regarding climate change to anybody who would listen. For more than ten years they supported research that would cast doubt on scientific reports" about the dangers of burning fossil fuels58. Basically, their reports were distorted lies, pretending to be science. Who funded this maverick outfit, which received a lot of media coverage each time it produced a report? "Exxon, Ford, Texaco, General Motors, British Petroleum, and DaimlerChrysler"58 yet there was no indication in the mass media that these "scientific" reports were funded by the oil lobby - it was all presented as unbiased research, and has damaged the USA's population knowledge of climate change in the long-term.

In short, don't trust the news media directly even when they are reporting on scientific-sounding research groups. Always check facts with long-standing scientific bodies such as the Royal Society. Rich and activist commercialist lobby groups have a set of well-practised and efficient methods for manipulating the news and public opinion. The scientists and welfare groups who wish to get real scientific worries about certain industries out into the open are not funded or equipped to run public relations campaigns. Only multinational information campaigns, legal agreements and inter-national political bodies such as the EU have the oomph to be able to fight back against such powerful industries.

Edward Bernays is often described as the founding theorist of modern public relations. He had no doubts about the objectives of those with the money and power to influence the media:

The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organised habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons ... who pull the wires that control the public mind.

Edward Bernays in "Flat Earth News" by Nick Davies (2008)59

While what he says is true (that it is important in a democracy) because the populace must be informed, when the information flow is abused by commercial interests, democracy suffers because the truth suffers. I suspect that the quantity of PR in the news would have worried even Edward Bernays - although, given the material that Naom Chomsky digs, I am not sure. Chomsky is an incredibly articulate and intelligent opponent of the way democracy works in practice, and much of that centres on the ability of those with money to manipulate those without:

Book CoverThe leading figure in the public relations industry, Edward Bernays [...] went on to develop what he called the "engineering of consent," which he described as "the essence of democracy." The people who are able to engineer consent are the ones who have the resources and the power to do it - the business community.

"Media Control: The Spectacular Achievement of Propaganda" by Naom Chomsky (2002)60

Related:

7. Which are the Best and Worst News Products?

I have attempted to put some good ones at the top of the list, and some bad ones at the bottom, but there are no clear criteria on which to objectively order them so papers in this list are not positioned precisely.

Product

Notes
The Economist
Best quality. Weekly newspaper in magazine format. The best periodic news product for accuracy and scope.
BBC News
State-supported broadcaster. Comprehensive TV, radio and award-winning internet output.
London Gazette"Official Newspaper of Record for the United Kingdom", "its content consists of legal and official announcements from HM Government, the Armed Forces, local authorities, the Established Churches, companies and private citizens"61.@

Qualities

Fully-fledged educational newspapers, with general political slants but still accurate.
The Guardian
High quality9. Left-of-centre, progressive, high quality. Generally pro-European, pro-welfare state, pro- civil rights, anti-monarchy.61@
The Independent
High quality9. Generally, politically left. Cautious of official information.61@
Independent on Sunday@
Daily Telegraph
High quality9. Strongly conservative61.@
Sunday Telegraph@
The Observer
Quality9. Slightly less left than the Independent61.@
The Times
Quality9 (apparently). A high rate of successful PCC complaints62. Politically conservative.61. "I know Whitehall press officers now who rank the [Sunday Times] above even the cheapest red-top tabloid as a source of fabricated stories"63.@
Sunday Times@

Mid-Market Titles

A heavy emphasis on entertainment, sport and a general preference for scandal. Some ridiculous stories.
Morning StarLeft wing61.@
Daily Mail
Staunchly right-wing, "alarmist headlines", providing "daily hate" according to former owner Lord Northcliffe. "More than any other newspaper in Britain, it deals in falsehood and distortion"64. Populist, rabidly conservative, anti-Europe, anti-immigration, anti-taxation, anti-abortion, anti-permissive, constant moral outrages against the modern world51. It has over three times more successful PCC complaints against it than any other paper62. Alastair Campbell said: "It's very hard to see how we can be happy as a nation when every day two million people buy the Daily Mail"65.@
Mail on Sunday@

Trash / Red-Tops / Tabloids

Mass-market titles. Entertainment, celebrity gossip, ridiculous stories, sports and female nudity (some are owned by pornographers). Populist angst-driven sensationalist reporting.
Daily Mirror
Three similar titles from the same publisher (the latter two are Sunday papers). "Sensationalist, left-wing, down-market. [...] It remains the only national newspaper to support Labour consistently"61. Daily Mirror is one of the two most popular newspapers.@
Sunday Mirror@
The People@
Daily Sport
"Unapologetically trashy tabloid", "almost zero news content", soft porn content61.@
Sunday Sport@
News of the World
Sunday sister of the sun, populist, sensational news targeted at working class about crime, scandal and sex61@
Daily Express
Conservative, right-of-centre61. Daily Express is one of the worst three tabloids9. Britishpapers.co.uk lists this as a mid-market title.@
Sunday Express
Daily Star
Sensationalism, entertainment, some soft porn, right-wing, news content is negligible55. One of the worst three tabloids9.@
The Sun
Entertainment, "Sensational headlines", some soft porn, sometimes right-wing, light on news and politics, some say xenophobic and sexist61. One of the worst three tabloids9. The Sun has a high rate of successful PCC complaints62. One of the two most popular newspapers.@

8. An Industry in Trouble and the Rise of Internet News

Between 1990 and 2002 newspaper sales decreased by 20%. The three worst-quality tabloids were the only papers in this period to increase their sales: The Daily Star, the Daily Express and The Sun9. There is overall talk of the failure of the newspaper business model, as advertisers that used to pick newspapers find that the online world is more appropriate for their types of adverts. The Economist ran an article on this in mid 2009:

Most industries are suffering at present, but few are doing as badly as the news business. Things are worst in America, where many papers used to enjoy comfortable local monopolies, but in Britain around 70 local papers have shut down since the beginning of 2008. [...] This crisis is most advanced in the Anglo-Saxon countries, but it is happening all over the rich world: the impact of the internet, exacerbated by the advertising slump, is killing the daily newspaper.

The Economist (2009)27

The Internet is hurting newspapers and to some extent, other sources of mass media output. No-one who wants to know something waits until a programme appears about it on TV. And few people who want to find a service, local or distant, turn to their newspaper. Advertising has moved online along with information-seeking customers. Whereas newspapers and TV provide tidbits, any specific needs are best met through internet searching. Sports fans go to sports news services, current-event enthusiasts go to online news portals. The newspaper has become a default purchase for those who either do not want anything in particular - hardly a sturdy model to keep an industry going. Only the most catchy, the most trashy, and the most sensationalist popular papers are increasing their sales. Other specialist papers (like the Financial Times) have a chance as they, like the internet, can provide particular information so they have a captive audience. The rest of the printed press needs to change, but it is not clear how.

The only certainty about the future of news is that it will be different from the past. It will no longer be dominated by a few big titles whose front pages determine the story of the day. Public opinion will, rather, be shaped by thousands of different voices, with as many different focuses and points of view.

The Economist (2009)27

This predicted future sounds familiar. Before the commercialisation of news in the 1980s there used to be thousands of local news agencies, local investigators, and many specialist (small) journalism firms: all investigating stories and writing on them. The Economist writes about the future of news on the Internet as if it is a new concept. Actually, what we are seeing is the demise of the commercial-news model, and the resurgence of the multitude-of-voices model.

The declining viability of the commercial newspaper industry in the hands of the internet is hailed by some as a good sign for global democracy. Dr Indrajit Banerjee, a political theorist, argues that as critical reporting moves online and citizen investigators can publish their findings for all to see, it puts pressure on public-sector propaganda departments of governments around the world. This pressure serves to make distortion and spin look ridiculous, forcing governments (and national news outlets) to be more realistic with their own press releases and media departments, otherwise, no-one in their own country will look to them for information.66

9. Fixing the Press

9.1. Consumer Behaviour

9.2. Politics and Legislation

Some methods of curbing the press's abuses are good-hearted, but occasionally dysfunctional:

In short, it appears to be very difficult to concoct laws that allow individuals to protect themselves against ridiculous press stories, but where institutions and democracies are still subject to critical journalism without fear of recriminations. What would be an ideal is a world where consumers, as pointed out above, avoid the more outlandish papers, and where editors and journalists only try to produce responsible pieces. Unfortunately, neither is likely to happen.

10. Conclusions and Prevention

The mass media that pervades the UK and other countries is holding back human cultural evolution. Most news is unchecked, and most of it derives from commercial public-relations departments, even in quality newspapers. Entire social panics and worries have been founded on nothing more than newspaper exaggeration. Politics and democracy itself is endangered by the mass delusion fostered by some papers, as politicians are pressurized into taking measures that don't make sense, because the populace has been misled by popular tabloids. Popular television and trashy tabloids have been shown up in studies highlighting their negative effects on intelligence and their correlation with violent behaviour. The popular mass media promotes the lowest standards and least moral behaviours. The surest course of action to improve the behaviour of youth is to occult from them TV and trashy mass media products. This improves intelligence and reduces aggression. Another course of action is to separate the market-driven way in which the masses tend to buy into degrading and shallow content, leading to the further production of that material. The appearance of the internet and of digital media has done away with the ability of governments to legislate by means of contents certificate (18, 15, U, etc). What is needed is counter-education during which schoolchildren are educated about critical ways of thinking about media. Tabloids, broadsheets and TV programs need a system that rates their typical accuracy, in a simple-to-understand way. A highly inaccurate media product gets one red star, medium ones get 3 orange stars, and accurate ones get a green star. General broadcasters should only be allowed to reach a certain ratio of violence to educational material (or otherwise be labelled as an advertising or adult channel). Such new measures are required to aid in general human advancement, and resist trash culture's annexing of the mainstream media. Mass media is presently the bane of human cultural evolution.

Read / Write Comments

By Vexen Crabtree 2009 Jun 13
Originally published 1998 Oct 15
Last Updated: 2014 Sep 09
http://www.humantruth.info/mass_media.html
Parent page: Science and Truth Versus Mass Confusion

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

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The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source.

Anderson, M S
(1985) The Ascendancy of Europe 1815-1914. Second edition. Published by Pearson Education Limited, Essex, UK. Anderson is Professor Emeritus of International History in the University of London and a fellow of the Royal Historical Society.

Carroll, Robert. Taught philosophy at Sacramento City College from 1977 until retirement in 2007. Created The Skeptic's Dictionary in 1994.
(2011) Unnatural Acts: Critical Thinking, Skepticism, and Science Exposed!. Kindle edition. Published by the James Randi Educational Foundation. Chapter 6 of this book, Reliable Sources of Confusion, Collusion, and Spam reports and details a large number of cases were public-relations material and other fake news is fed into popular news outlets.

Chomsky, Naom
(2002) Media Control: The Spectacular Achievement of Propaganda. 2nd edition. Seven Stories Press, New York USA. First published 1991.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2004) "UK Trash Culture" (2004). Accessed 2014 Sep 09.
(2013) "Democracy: Its Foundations and Modern Challenges" (2013). Accessed 2014 Sep 09.

Davies, Nick
(2008) Flat Earth News. Hardback. Published by Chatto & Windus, Random House, London, UK.

Gilovich, Thomas
(1991) How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. 1993 paperback edition published by The Free Press, NY, USA.

Gross, Richard
(1996) Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour. 3rd edition. Published by Hodder & Stoughton, London UK.

Gunter, B. & McAleer, J.L.
(1990) Children and television - the one-eyed monster? London: Routledge. Via Gross (1996).

Huesmannm L.R. & Eron, L.D.
(1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behaviour. Aggressive Behaviour, 10, 243-51. Via Gross (1996).

Jones, Bill
(2004, Ed.) Politics UK. 5th edition. With Dennish Kavanagh, Michael Moran and Phillip Norton. First published 1991. Pearson Education Ltd.

LaVey, Anton. (1930-1997)
(1992) The Devil's Notebook. Published by Feral House, CA, USA.

Loughlin, Martin
(2000) Sword and Scales: An Examination of the Relationship Between Law and Politics. Hart Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. Prof. Loughlin is Professor of Law at the University of Manchester, UK, and Professor of Public Law-elect at the London School of Economics & Political Science, UK.

Mazarr, Michael J
Global Trends 2005. Palgrave Books softback.

McDougall, Julian
(2012) Media Studies: The Basics. Published by Routledge, New York, USA

Myers, David
(1999) Social Psychology. 6th 'international' edition. First edition 1983. Published by McGraw Hill.

Newson, E.
(1994) Video violence: And the protection of children. Psychology Review, 1 (2), 2-5. Via Gross (1996).

NSS. The National Secular Society, London, UK.
Newsline. Weekly news letter. See: "Secularism" by Vexen Crabtree (2011).

Wilson, Colin
(1971) The Occult. First published Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, London, 1971. Quotes from 1976 edition, Granada Publishing Limited.

Footnotes

  1. McDougall (2012) p9.^
  2. Forbes article dated 2011 Nov 21. Accessed 2014 Sep 07. I had to load this page twice - the first time I was sent to an advert/sign-up page. I needed to refresh the page to get to the article.^
  3. Carroll (2011) p105. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 07.^^
  4. Professor Justin Lewis: Head, School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies. Cardiff University. In The Economic and Social Research Council (2009) (Britain in 2010) p114-115. Added to this page on 2010 Mar 27.^^
  5. The Guardian (2006 Jul 20).^
  6. Added to this page on 2013 Aug 02. The Independent article "British public wrong about nearly everything, survey shows" (2013 Jul 09). Accessed in print 2013 Jul 09. The survey was conducted for the Royal Statistical Society and King's College London, by Ipsos Mori, and was a phone survey of 1,1015 people.^
  7. Carroll (2011) p112-113. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 09.^
  8. Mazaar p9.^
  9. Jones (2004) p202.^^^^^
  10. Mazarr p265.^
  11. Added to this page on 2014 Feb 08. Bill and Miranda Gates Foundation (2014) on annualletter.gatesfoundation.org accessed 2014 Jan 25. Added to this page on 2014 Feb 08.^
  12. Mazarr p272.^
  13. Mazaar p265.
  14. Mazaar p272.
  15. Davies (2008) p137.^
  16. Erich Goode 'The Skeptic Meets the Moral Panic' in Skeptical Inquirer (2008 Nov/Dec) Vol. 32 Issue 6. Goode has taught sociology at multiple USA universities and has authored multiple books on sociology, including co-authoring the book Moral Panics.^
  17. Davies (2008) p388-390.^
  18. Davies (2008), p388-390.^
  19. Davies (2008) p11, 24-27.^
  20. Davies (2008) p375-376.^
  21. Added to this page on 2013 Apr 04.^
  22. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 07.^
  23. Carroll (2011) p101-104. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 07.^
  24. Davies (2008) chapter The Suppliers p65, 96-101, 106-7.^
  25. Carroll (2011) p111. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 09.^
  26. McDougall (2012) p122. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  27. The Economist (2009 May 16) p15,81-3.^^^
  28. Davies (2008) p52-53, chapter The Suppliers p90-91, 95-6.^
  29. McDougall (2012) p125. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  30. Carroll (2011) p113 contains the description of McManus's research, initially from a 2004 publication by Carroll. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 09.^
  31. Davies (2008) p133-4.^^
  32. Fenton, N. (2011) 'We need more than a public enquiry' p1, Red Pepper 8 July. In McDougall (2012) p80.^
  33. Added to this page on 2013 Nov 18.^
  34. LaVey (1987) The Nine Satanic Sins. A copy is held on the Church of Satan website at URL churchofsatan.com/Pages/Sins.html. Accessed 2007.^
  35. The Economist (2010 May 01) Report on Television p9. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  36. Wilson (1971) p186.^
  37. The Economist (2004 Dec 18) p151-152.^
  38. New Scientist (2005 Jul 09).^
  39. LaVey (1992) chapter The Suppliers p84.^
  40. Myers (1999) p412-415.^
  41. Myers (1999) chapter 10.^
  42. Gross (1996) p424-426.^
  43. Gilovich (1991) chapter 6, p98.^
  44. Davies (2008) p186.^
  45. Jones (2004) p201.^
  46. McDougall (2012) p73. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  47. Loughlin (2000) p124.^
  48. Davies (2008) chapter The Suppliers p79-80.^
  49. Anderson (1985) p78-79. Added to this page on 2010 Jun 19.^
  50. Prof. of Law M. Loughlin in "Democracy: Its Foundations and Modern Challenges" by Vexen Crabtree (2013).
  51. David Aaronovitch (2006), Times newspaper. Accessed on timesonline.co.uk/davidaaronovitch in 2006.^^
  52. Davies (2008) p17-19. Davies' main reference for the text on Murdoch is Bruce Page's The Murdoch Achipelago.^
  53. McDougall (2012) p76-77. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  54. McDougall (2012) p78. Added to this page on 2013 May 13.^
  55. The Economist (2008 Jun 28) article "The unanimity problem".^^
  56. Davies (2008) chapter The Suppliers p52-43, 90-91.^
  57. Carroll (2011) p97-100,138. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 09.^
  58. Carroll (2011) p93-p95. Added to this page on 2014 Sep 04.^
  59. Davies (2008) chapter The Suppliers p85.^
  60. Chomsky (2002) p28-29.^
  61. www.britishpapers.co.uk. Accessed 2009 Jun 11.^^^^
  62. Davies (2008) p366. Davies tabulated successful filings with the Press Complaints Commission (i.e., cases that were concluded in favour of the complainer). He listed the four worst papers: The Times, the Mirror, the Sun and the Daily Mail. The Daily Mail had three times as many complaints as the other three.^^^
  63. Davies (2008) p325.^
  64. Davies (2008) p367.^
  65. McDougall (2012) p158, citing Alaistair Campbell (2011). 'Happiness', the Thomas Baggs Lecture, University of Birmingham, 12 July.^
  66. Dr Indrajit Banerjee in Hoff (2006) chapter 2.^
  67. Gilovich (1991) p109.^
  68. The Economist (2009 Oct 24) article "Eastern Europe's media woes" p42. Added to this page on 2009 Nov 06.^

© 2014 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.

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