Errors in Thinking: Cognitive Errors, Wishful Thinking and Sacred TruthsWhy Question Beliefs? Dangers of Placing Ideas Beyond Doubt, and Advantages of FreethoughtThe False and Conflicting Experiences of Mankind: How Other Peoples' Experience Contradict Our Own BeliefsWhat is Science and the Scientific Method?
Perception & Memory:
What Causes Religion and Superstitions?Experiences of God are Illusions, Derived from Malfunctioning Psychological ProcessesHallucinations, Sensory Deprivation and Fasting: The Physiological Causes of Religious and Mystical ExperiencesScience and ReligionReligion and Intelligence
There are many neurological and physiological causes of odd experiences in our lives. These range from ordinary tricks of the eye1 through to repeated minor epileptic fits that cause nothing more than visual hallucinations combined with emotional cues. Strange and unusual experiences often give rise to strange and unusual beliefs2 especially for those people are not inclined towards finding natural explanations for events. Experiments have found that a person's "psychological tendencies may also be used to predict exact types of 'unexplained' phenomena in which they are likely to believe" and that those who display signs of dissociation are likely to see "a given stimulus item as a paranormal creature, whether Bigfoot or an alien"3.
For example during night terrors, our brain is still suppressing bodily movement and it feels we're being forced down on to the bed, complete with much anxiety and fear. Some people have such attacks multiple times. The belief that this is a demonic attack seems natural to many and even after explaining the physiological and natural causes of night terrors, many continue to believe in a supernatural source. Of course, this is ridiculed by those who know that such attacks are really alien investigations of the Human body. Both explanations are foiled however by neuroscientists who understand that the cause of these experiences is biochemical in nature.
Cultural expectations play a large part in the interpretation of personal events, meaning that the resultant beliefs vary according to geographical region. We all find rational arguments to explain away those who experience things that contradict our own interpretation of reality - in secret, when we find people who have experienced things that we don't believe in, we all think we can explain others' experiences better than they themselves can explain them. Investigations into the physiological causes of strange beliefs comes from an ancient line of skepticism. In "The Supernatural?" by Lionel A. Weatherley (1891) the author intelligently outlines many such investigations - and that was well before modern neurology started making its amazing strides towards understanding the sources of experiences. Despite this knowledge, the masses remain generally unconvinced, and stick to ages-old cultural and subjective beliefs. The Christian Pentecostals have a saying, "the man with an experience is never at the mercy of the man with a doctrine"4, meaning that rationality subverts itself to experience. In total, we cannot entirely trust our experiences nor those of others, and more careful investigation is needed by all.
All of these 'unlikely' phenomenon have extreme believers who have experienced personal and real events that confirm or caused their belief. It is not possible to tell them, most the time, that these things are not true because no matter how much logic or argument you give, you cannot negate the experiences they have had. Some of the believers are clearly psychotic and are dealt with by psychiatrists in due course however the majority of believers and experiencers of the above items are normal people. And it feels like psychosis to deny what you know is real: Therefore the experiencers of these events cannot dis-believe them unless they see a clear mechanism by which their minds have been tricked5. R. D. Laing, a psychologist, produced influential and genre-setting work with such books as "Self and Others".
Depending on what you believe, you will make different conclusions about the nature of what other people believe. Those who experiences Gods, Spirits and Demons will say that UFOs are demons. Those that experience UFOs however, will say that Gods are intelligent aliens who have appeared like Gods to us through their power. "Any science, sufficiently advanced, seems like magic"6.
What the contradictory believers are saying to each other is: We believe that we have a better understanding of your experience than you do. Or rather, like all people: We are not capable of not believing in our own experiences, and since your experiences are different we think your experiences are not true ones! We think we are interpreting the things you've seen more objectively than you...
Clearly the range of Human experience gives rise to many contradictions. Not all experiences can be entirely true. We know that the evident facts are sometimes not quite so factual. We have all experienced things that actually did not happen. We have dreamt, tripped, imagined and forgotten things leading us to conclusions and sternly felt beliefs in things that are not real.
We experienced the world as flat... so sure everyone was of this, that those who thought otherwise were at first declared insane. How sure we were of such a belief that we could declare other people insane for disbelieving... yet how wrong everyone was! Proof by consensus is no proof at all. We do not have any consistent or absolute way of approaching what we consider true, however we are more capable of telling with certainty when something is false. The Earth is not flat, the Northern Lights are not spiritual in basis, neither are rainbows, the stars or the sun and the moon. Earthquakes are not gods moving underneath the Earth, nor can volcanoes or the weather (probably) be influenced by spirit or totem worship. We are not sure if science has "disproved" souls or gods, but it certainly seem less likely that they exist than they used to.
Many Christians very much doubt peoples' experiences of reincarnation. The previous lives that are felt and experienced are similar to the modes of experience of the Christian God: it is something that they can be completely sure about due to personal experience. Claims are made that as the belief has occurred for thousands of years so it must be a true and valid experience. But any grounds that the Christian gives for discounting the experience of continual reincarnation is also grounds for dismissing the experience of God. Indeed, any grounds for dismissing the experience of alien abduction (which can sometimes have a profound effect on a persons' life) is also grounds for dismissing the experience of God. In short, we are saying: Your experience is fake. Social psychologists, anthropologists, skeptical rationalists and scientists may well disbelieve all of them, pointing to psychology as the true cause.
It is not doubted that people do have fake experiences. Insane asylums are full of people who experience a different reality to us. We judge them as insane because we know that what they say they experience is not true. We understand that some people's stern and life-altering belief in conspiracy theories are actually based on error.
Our brain is an imperfect organic machine, not a mystical repository of truth. Our senses are imperfect, our point of view limited, and the reality we experience is never the total picture. Human thought is infused with systematic thinking errors. We can logically deduce that any given experience may be untrue, and any particular thought could be a mistake. The result is that our total take on reality is a mix of guesses and patchwork. No two people ever experience the same event or thing in the same way, because the complexities and depths of their errors and assumptions are different for every person: every event is experienced slightly differently. No-one has precisely the same point of view on any event.
Everyone experiences a different reality and there is no way to reconcile the experiences of two different people. Our internal worlds are unverified. No knowledge is absolute. To accept this doubt behind every theory and fact is the scientific way - evidence and logic must back up theories, but theories are never irrefutably proven, they always remain not-yet-disproven. The psychologist William James wrote that many interpretations of reality are arrived at because people find them nicer or better for themselves:
“The obvious outcome of our total experience is that the world can be handled according to many systems of ideas, and is so handled by different men, and will each time give some characteristic kind of profit, for which he cares, to the handler, while at the same time some other kind of profit has to be omitted or postponed.”
The result of all this fog is subjectivism, the realisation that our realities as we experience them are completely tied up with personal experience and personal mental traits. Any attempts to learn "absolute" truths will fail, simply because our Human brains are not equipped to deal with reality in an objective way.”
Anthropologists find that the particular phenomenon experienced by people change over time and from culture to culture. With UFOology, different decades and countries have sighted completely different UFOs. A period of time in the UK saw that UFO reportings were generally furry/fuzzy aliens. Modern UFO reports are "grays", thin child-like bodies with enlarged eyes and heads. Different countries consistently report different types of aliens, backing up the idea that such experiences are based on subjective interpretations of stimulus, rather than being due to actual visits by aliens. As culture changes, so does the phenomenon. What does that say about the phenomenon? The underlying cause of the phenomenon is something that is being interpreted.
Take the following case involving a bus driver, reported by neurologist Oliver Sachs:
“One of my favorite case histories, which I quote in my book [on hallucinations], is of a bus conductor in London who, as he was punching the tickets, suddenly felt that he was in heaven and told this to all of his passengers. He remained in a very elated state for three days. It sounds as if he was in an almost postictal mania. Then he continued on a more moderate level, deeply religious, until he had another bunch of seizures three years later - and he said that cleared his mind. Now he no longer believes in God and angels, in Christ, in an afterlife, or in heaven. Interestingly, the second conversion to atheism carried the same elated and revelatory quality as the first one to religion.”
It is clear that the Bus driver's experience of manic happiness was the result of a neurological event, and it is also clear that his description of the event was due to cultural expectations. A Buddhist would have described a state of Nirvana; an ancient Greek would have described being blessed by the gods, etc. Local culture was the cause of the specific explanation of the experience, and therefore, controlled what the Bus Driver came to believe. Despite such assumptions being the cause, the Bus Driver cited the experience as evidence to back up the belief. The event supported any religion, but actually had a mundane explanation. Against such confusing stimulus, it is easy to see how many come to strongly believe in elements of the supernatural.
“Religious experiences tend to conform closely to cultural and religious expectations. Village girls in Portugal have visions of the Virgin Mary - not of the Indian goddess Kali. Native Americans on their vision quest see visions of North American animals not of African ones. Thus it would seem that religious experiences, no matter how intense and all-consuming, are subject to constraint by the cultural and religious norms of the person to whom they occur. Another way of looking at this is to say that there can be no such thing as a pure experience. An experience always happens to a person, and that person already has an interpretive framework through which he or she views the world. Thus, experience and interpretation always combine and interpenetrate.”
Such important differences in interpretation casts doubt on the basis of the experiences themselves, and has been presented (especially in the case of UFOs) as evidence that the phenomenon is self-generated, not real. The experiences are a function of the aspirations and expectations of the experiencer. To the experiencer, all such arguments are meaningless as they have experienced it and it feels "insane" to them to doubt their own experiences. However, doubt them we do, because with so many contradictions between different world-views based on these experiences, we know that many, if not most, of them cannot all be true.
How has the experience of God changed over time? Originally, Gods were more like "spirits", low-scale pre-philosophy beings that inhabited rocks, stones, places, the stars above and the seasons. Scholars call this form of religion animism. These emotional projections were our only method of understanding how these complex things worked. When they behaved strangely, we found that we experienced them as living things! Not surprisingly we found them to have human emotions... at some point psychologists realized that we were just projecting our own inner states on to the world when we claim that beings that are not ourselves share the same emotions. The empathy of an unscientific mind leads to this misunderstanding of the nature of things. A culture steeped in science like modern Western culture, arrives at completely different understandings of spiritual-seeming experience than did primitive Human cultures.
If our biochemical brains and physiology sometimes go haywire, as indeed they do and we know they do, but we are not aware of a dysfunction, we are apt to misinterpret the events. So, our expectations, culture and abstract thinking all conspire to present to us a false experience. Some medical conditions can cause these to be recurring and frequent occurrences. Through studying these, science has come to understand such experiences as out of body experiences, possession, night time terrors, and through more simple biological knowledge have understood the Inkubus and Sukkubus, and many other superstitious beliefs. Physical problems with the eyes can cause wild effects such as seeing blood run up walls, dust storms, clouds, and haloes that are not really there10. Isolated fits and seizures can cause bizarre effects such as lights, feelings, smells, auras and déjà vu that can be mild and subtle11.
Hallucinations caused by eye problems can result in surprisingly specific visions of grotesque faces with large eyes and teeth, blood running upwards, and costumed figures13 as our brain tries to interpret errant inputs14. But most hallucinations start in the brain and most of them are subtle and not just a matter of visual phenomenon. Disease, neurochemical imbalances, fasting, exhaustion, sleep and sensory deprivation15,16, chanting, practices of austerity and ritualistic behaviour can all induce hallucinations and other strange states of mind17. They can also be triggered artificially by doctors. The range of experiences produced is varied, from mundane events such as smelling something to out of body experiences. Experimenters can consistently generate deeply meaningful religious experiences which would be utterly convincing if participants didn't know it was being generated artificially. People interpret these episodes in terms of their local culture - Western Christians don't receive Buddhist enlightenment and witness their previous lives, for example, whilst Eastern Daoists don't receive images of the Virgin Mary18. For those who know no neurology it is easy to see how supernatural beliefs can result from such episodes.
A wide variety of religious customs and beliefs across the world are clearly the result of misunderstood biology17. Native American tribes considered fasting being the way for receiving guidance from the Great Spirit. Moses fasted for forty days on Sinai while "talking to God" - the result was the 10 Commandments (Exodus 34:28), Elijah fasted forty days as he journeyed to Horeb, where, in a cave, he experiences a range of effects (1 Kings 19:8-15) and Bahá'u'lláh, (of the Bahá'í Faith) received revelations after spending months in a black underground prison. Jesus also fasted 40 days and as a result, experienced a battle with Satan in a series of visions (Matthew 4:1-11). As a species, we have been artificially inducing mystical experiences for as long as there are records of our behaviour, although nowadays we have a much better understanding of the underlying neurology and how it effects our consciousness.
A series of wonderful investigations documented in "The Supernatural?" by Lionel A. Weatherley (1891) provide some timeless notes on hallucinations and ghosts:
“Mrs. A., so graphically described by Sir David Brewster in his letters to Sir Walter Scott on Natural Magic. Mrs A. was suffering repeated hallucinations, and was advised to carry out a simple test to determine if she was really seeing an exterior ghost: to squash one of her eyes with her hand, so as to cause the ghost to appear double. A mental apparition would not be effected by this test. (However she was too stressed during the episodes to carry out this test.)”
Another case dated 26th Dec 1830 was about a wife who repeatedly hears her husband calling for her (later on, impatiently so) but she can't find him in the house. When they meet later, she is surprised to know that he was quite well, but nowhere near the house, and not calling for her. Weatherly describes this as a simple aural hallucination. She had many hallucinations during a period of general ill health, but, being seen by doctors and a sound person, didn't suspect any supernatural cause. No doubt such things are the sources of many so-called supernatural experiences. Surely, she could have been easily pushed by friends or relatives into thinking her illusions were true, or, that they were meaningful. Imagine just for a moment if after telling someone about one of these hallucinations, she soon discovered that her husband had died in an accident. Such an amazing story would spread like wildfire, and 'believers' would be aghast how anyone, after hearing the story, could continue to not believe in souls and ghosts. But luckily in this case, as supernatural beliefs were not promoted to her, the illness passed into history much more rapidly whereas a superstitious or gullible person could have ended up spending decades telling stories about ghosts.
Scientific research and brain imaging have revealed the obvious: hallucinations are caused by activation of relevant parts of the brains and are not the result of supernatural shenanigans. Such activation can be the result of blood sugar abnormalities and other nutritional effects. Electronic activation of the fusiform face area in the back of the right hemisphere causes hallucinations of faces, for example. Defects (such as blindness) and diseases make affected areas much more prone to dysfunction.8
This should all teach us all to be wary of experiences that cannot be verified externally. The first assumption of those who experience such strange phenomena should be that it is self-generated unless proven otherwise!
“Sleep paralysis, or more properly, sleep paralysis with hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations have been singled out as a particularly likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures. Sleep paralysis is a condition in which someone, most often lying in a supine position, about to drop off to sleep, or just upon waking from sleep realizes that s/he is unable to move, or speak, or cry out. This may last a few seconds or several moments, occasionally longer. People frequently report feeling a "presence" that is often described as malevolent, threatening, or evil. An intense sense of dread and terror is very common. The presence is likely to be vaguely felt or sensed just out of sight but thought to be watching or monitoring, often with intense interest, sometimes standing by, or sitting on, the bed. On some occasions the presence may attack, strangling and exerting crushing pressure on the chest. People also report auditory, visual, proprioceptive, and tactile hallucinations, as well as floating sensations and out-of-body experiences (Hufford, 1982). These various sensory experiences have been referred to collectively as hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs). People frequently try, unsuccessfully, to cry out. After seconds or minutes one feels suddenly released from the paralysis, but may be left with a lingering anxiety. Extreme effort to move may even produce phantom movements in which there is proprioceptive feedback of movement that conflicts with visual disconfirmation of any movement of the limb. People may also report severe pain in the limbs when trying to move them. [...] A few people may have very elaborate experiences almost nightly (or many times in a night) for years. Aside from many of the very disturbing features of the experience itself (described in succeeding sections) the phenomenon is quite benign.”
Waking up, unable to move, panicked, feeling like you are being "pushed" on to the bed, feeling scared... this event is interpreted by us according to our expectations as we have no other way of explaining them without understanding the biological cause. UFO abductees think they have been marked out for an experiment, spiritualists think something is trying to possess them, God-believers think a Demon is tormenting them, witch-conspiracy believers think they are being attacked by a witch and those who believe in simple ghosts have even reported that they thought a ghost was trying to rape them.
The experience of a normal medical event can become very extreme and radical, according to our fears and the memes that society provides us with, and then the expectation has self-generated an experience to back itself up! To give itself evidence! When the only evidence is that the person is letting on, to us, what memes they have been influenced by.
Sleep apnea and other medically-understood phenomenon are misunderstood by us in light of our expectations about life. There are many other physiological causes of strange experiences of course, and recent experiments and investigations have allowed exciting results to shed light on the inner working of the Human brain. In particular, a series of experiments have resulted in a deeper understanding of why people experience the idea of god, and these I have put on a separate page: "Experiences of God are Illusions, Derived from Malfunctioning Psychological Processes" by Vexen Crabtree (2002).
Out-of-body experiences (OBEs) describe a feeling that, while unconscious or semi-conscious, a person's spirit floats above their own body and perhaps even explores distance places. It then returns to its owner's body whereupon they awake. There is a particular trend to report this after near-death experiences or during drug use21. In Europe, 5.8% answered a poll to say that they'd had an out-of-body experience (OBE) and a similar rate was found amongst those in the USA22. Those who state they have a magical ability to do this wilfully often call it "astral projection", "soul travelling"23 or "spirit walking", and such claims are common in some New Age communities. But what causes OBEs?
There are many neurological and physiological causes of odd experiences in our lives. These range from ordinary tricks of the eye1 through to repeated minor epileptic fits that cause nothing more than visual hallucinations combined with emotional cues. Strange and unusual experiences often give rise to strange and unusual beliefs2 especially for those people are not inclined towards finding natural explanations for events.24
Historically OBEs were poorly studied because of their purely psychological nature; but recent technological developments have allowed neurologists to examine our states of mind much more closely, although neurological and physiological causes of OBEs have been suggested for a long time25. Dr Olaf and colleagues in Switzerland have identified the physical places in the brain where such experiences are generated22. We have found that a temporary reduction in blood or oxygen (including excess carbon dioxide in the blood) can induce out-of-body experiences "which may explain the prevalence of these sensations during accidents, emergencies, heart attacks, etc"22. Not only that, but we have been able to artificially create situations in which OBEs occur in wide-awake individuals26. Biological explanations aside, investigators have done things like placed symbols high-up in rooms (on cabinets, etc) where the patient cannot see them. Those experiencing OBEs have never seen those symbols, and sceptics who have comprehensively reviewed such experiments report that the patients only ever see what they already knew was there. In other words, it is the brain tricking the patient into thinking they are having an OBE, when in reality it is only a subjective, internal event. This, combined with our neurological understanding of OBEs is definitive proof that there is nothing supernatural occurring. As physicist Prof Stenger says, there is "no evidence for anything happening outside of the physical processes of the brain"27, a conclusion also reached by neurologist Dr Bruger26.
The above two paragraphs are taken from Out of Body Experiences (OBEs): Astral Projection or Soul Travelling?. That page contains further information on this topic.
Our Human brains are pattern-recognition machines. We learnt to look for danger-signs above all else, and things that are important to us such as other Humans. So, we feel we are being looked at in the dark, we continuously mistake ordinary objects for Human beings or animals looking at us. We have to look at these things to double check what they are! We look around the room with a feeling that we are being watched... because these are instincts that kept us alive in the jungle. Slight sounds and movements are instinctively felt to be important, significant, and need investigation... especially in our own homes. And this is how it is in nature. Fear of spiders and snakes come from the same source: A heightened alertness to potential danger.
How much more jumpy are some of us after watching a good horror movie? After a killer-suspense film? How much more concerned are we about a slightly open doorway after we've been sat with dangerous thoughts on our minds, on the edge of our seats! The more stressed we are, the more we have on our minds, the more our minds create things to be afraid of. The horror of our own minds, tormenting us with ancient instinct in the modern world!
Suggestion and paranoia alone can cause apparent epidemics, especially amongst school children and amongst populaces where stress factors are high. For example, in a school in Shelkovsk, Chechnya. "Symptoms included convulsions, nausea and breathing difficulties. The illness spread to neighbouring schools. Local doctors suspected mass poisoning, but when a delegation of medics arrived from Moscow, they attributed it to mass hysteria"28. Symptoms are real and fall in line with what the patients expect to suffer from. "Mass hysteria, or medically unexplained epidemic illness, has been documented since medieval times. Simon Wessely, a director of the King's Centre for Military Health Research at King's College London, says such outbreaks tend to reflect a society's beliefs". Importantly, Dr Wessely states that the most effective way to stop the epidemic and stop the symptoms is to explain that rumour and suggestion are causing them. It is easy to imagine an anti-rumour spreading and curing the epidemic. Once this has happened, "symptoms vanish within days"28.
Expectations not only inform the way in which we interpret our experiences, but they can also causes experiences, even ones as real as the symptoms of disease.
Those who believe that people are out to get them look hard for signs that this is true! Then, they find them. Children will sometimes go out to look for fairies, and sometimes they find fairies! They are sure of it. That something they caught a glimpse of must have been a fairy. When they turn to it to look at it and it disappears this is even more evidence for them that it was indeed a fairy. Their expectations self-verify, their experience of fairies is a self-generated, but wrong, interpretation of what they thought they saw. Through their want to find what they believe exists, they actually experience what they believe exists. Projection of inner states into the outside world ('solipsism') also explains the culture-dependent nature of supernatural and UFO experiences.
See: "Shamanism" by Vexen Crabtree (2015)
Different Truths Learned from Altered Consciousness:
Shamanism is built on the experience of altered states of consciousness. These are brought about through trances, dances, the delirium of sickness and heat exhaustion, rituals, epileptic fits, schizophrenic episodes, but, most of all, psychotropic drugs such as mushrooms and consuming psychoactive parts of plants and other hallucinogens.30
The effects of shamanic trances and dances have not gone unstudied. Czech psychiatrist Stanisav Grof developed a technique "called 'holotropic breathwork', which involves lengthy sessions of altered breathing combined with music" which was found to be able to alter oxygen levels and brain functioning to the extent that it produced similar experiences as those experienced through the use of LSD31. Our brains require a constant and steady amount of oxygen and blood sugar in order to function properly. Our frontal cortex, responsible for moods, is especially sensitive. Trance states and special breathing exercises can induce strange experiences, which, devoid of any understanding of how our brains work, are often interpreted as having spiritual, magical or otherworldly meaning.
In Pakistan, shamans (the dehar of the Kalash Kafirs) do it by standing motionless and concentrating on an altar until they develop tunnel vision, then by shaking and jerking32. In Indonesia, it is done during dreams or states of sickness32. "Meanwhile, in the Mentawei Islands near Sumatra, shamans dance until they fall into a state of trance. They are then borne up into the sky in a boat carried by eagles where they meet sky spirits and ask them for remedies to treat disease"32. Traditional Eskimo shamans use drumbeats or "lace their arms and legs tightly to their bodies to hasten the release of the inner light-force"32. A mixture of physical effects and mental effort to produce these states is similar to mystics and spiritualists across the world. But is there any truth in the shamanistic interpretation of these experiences?
The variety of beliefs and practices tell us very little about the nature of spirits. But the variety of experiences do seem to describe very well the various states of the human mind that cause psychedelia in general: hippies do it with acid, Pentecostal Christians do it in Church (just like shamans in Singapore who become a shaman by displaying spontaneous signs of spirit possession during temple ceremonies32), and sufferers of night terrors do it with demons in their beds at night. In each time and place, these similar experiences are interpreted radically differently depending on the local culture. Is it really the case that all those other cultures' supernatural explanations are wrong, and one particular supernatural explanation is correct? It seems that the dark days of human ignorance have come to a close, and psychologists and neurologists offer the only explanations that are universal and true. Shamanism isn't to do with spirits, it is all about navigating the world in a pre-scientific way.
The morning-glory species Rivea corymbosa contains a drug similar to LSD, and is considered sacred by South American shamans - although note that "in 1651 a Spanish physician wrote that Aztec priests ate morning-glory in order to receive messages from the gods"33. But there is a question to be asked here. Why would gods talk to Aztec priests, when in general, other shamans maintain that it is animal spirits that speak to shamans, as a result of the same drug? It seems strange that one group of people think they are talking to gods, and another group of shamans think they are talking to animals. If this was true, wouldn't some animal spirits speak to Aztec priests and tell them that they're ancestors, not gods? Or wouldn't some gods talk to shamans and tell them that they're not ancestors? This division along cultural lines tells us that both groups of people are misinterpreting the psychedelic effects of the drug they are taking. At least, in this, the average hippie was much closer in appreciating the truth: drugs were interesting, but not a source of absolute reality. If reality could be spied through these drugs, then shamans, Aztec priests and hippies would have discovered the same underlying reality, not three radically different ones!
Differing Experiences of the Afterlife:
In Siberia the shamans know that the dead enjoy lives in the underworld that are very much like the living: they hunt, they fish, and they chatter to relatives. After people's death, shamans must actually help a spirit get into the underworld, else they become lost spirits, causing problems for the living.34,35. Such a contrast to the deluge of Christian mystics with their heaven and hell - where spirits cannot be guided, and god sends spirits to the right place. At least one of those two groups of people is completely wrong about their culture's entire experience of the spiritworld and of the afterlife.
Siberian shamans' knowledge of the afterlife also contradicts the experiences of North American shamen. Versluis documents how many North American tribes believed in a sky realm where people lived happily after death (where the seasons were also reversed), and a world below for "those who are punished in the afterlife"36. And in another complete divergence from the spiritual truths known outside of America, Thunder Cloud was a shaman from Winnebago who "maintained that he was able to consciously recall two previous incarnations. In the second he actually watched the people burying him after his death"37. Therefore, reincarnation was the destiny of the dead. It is not the case that we could declare that in reality, some spirits get lost, most go the underworld, and some are reincarnated. That's not what shamanism teaches us. Those who can soul travel and actually talk to spirits are told by the spirits what the score is with afterlife. So why it is that in North America, shamen find themselves reincarnated, but no shamen elsewhere have discovered this? And why do the spirits of the underworld not correct the errors of North American shamans, and tell them that actually spirits need guiding to the underworld, else they get lost? And why do Apache indians think that ghosts return in the form of owls? These contradictions in beliefs teaches us one main thing: these believers are not in touch with any reality except that which their local culture has taught them. A lot of people are simply wrong about the beliefs that they cherish, and beliefs that are backed up with strong personal and cultural testimonies.”
Abstract thought allows us to take things to extremes. We can feel love for people who we have never seen based on their personality and communication alone. The communication medium is irrelevant. Due to our increasing capacity for empathy, we feel that others love us in return and feel we are in touch with their emotions. This is based on the feelings we have towards them, based on our own abstract thought and these are all in turn all based on our assumptions on the relationship between what is real and what is abstract.
It is possible to create an abstract personality, based on abstract thought processes, like politics and religion, but based around a concept or idea. Frequently, the conclusion we feel when we do this is that we are looking at God itself.
Our need for unconditional love, our abstract philosophical minds and the way our very emotions and world view are led by our abstract representations of what we think is real can conspire to create in our minds an abstract source of love. Something we want and need since youth, and something that can frequently be lacking. The all-loving abstract god, the all-knowing and all-powerful being that we create in our minds matches all of those abstract ideas we attribute with our parents while young.
Such want and expectation, especially combined with the popular cultural memes of God-belief do lead to experiences of 'God'. That this occurs is not a valid argument against the possible existence of God, but surely places much of the belief in God on the same plane as belief in conspiracy theories and mass hysteria.
“It is not only the ideas of pure Reason as Kant styled them, that have this power of making us vitally feel presences that we are impotent articulately to describe. All sorts of higher abstractions bring with them the same kind of implacable appeal. [...] The whole universe of concrete objects, as we know them, swims, not only for [a transcendentalist], but for all of us, in a wider and higher universe of abstract ideas, that lend it its significance. As time, space and the ether soak through all things so (we feel) do abstract and essential goodness, beauty, strength, significance, justice, soak through all things good, strong, significant and just. [...]
I spoke of the convincingness of these feelings of reality, and I must dwell a moment longer on that point. They are as convincing to those who have them as any direct sensible experiences can be, and they are, as a rule, much more convincing than results established by mere logic ever are. [...] Probability is that you cannot help regarding them as genuine perceptions of truth, as revelations of a kind of reality which no adverse argument, however unanswerable by you in words, can expel from your belief.”
It is very much clear to some psychologists that the meaning and emotional abstractions that we make, due to our biochemical makeups and history (culminating as our phenotype), diffuse the world with meaning that is just as real as the cold concrete data our mere senses provide us with. Our assumptions and humanity make us experience meaningfulness and presences where reality itself doesn't.
Importantly, and this is something that I will definitely testify to, William James notes that mere logic is often much less convincing to people who have had wild experiences without knowing what causes them. Logical argument will not work because their experience is real to them - if logic says it isn't real, there is probably something wrong with the logic. In my understanding, revealing the potential valid causes of the experience and explaining the biochemistry or psychology of it can have two affects:
It's a fine line trying to balance between the two, but when people have experienced irreconcilably different versions of reality it can put a strain on their social relations!
My conclusion on thinking errors suffices as the conclusion to this page:
We all suffer from systematic cognitive dysfunctions; they infuse the very way we notice and analyse data, and distort our forming of conclusions. Emotional and societal factors influence our thinking much more than we like to admit. Our expectations and recent experiences change the way we recall memories. Even our very perceptions are effected by pre-conscious cognitive factors; what we see, feel, taste and hear are all subject to interpretation before we are even aware of them. Our brains were never meant to be the cool, rational, mathematical-logical computers that we like to sometimes pretend them to be.
- People easily misperceive random events as evidence that backs up their beliefs.
- We attribute causes to events based on our beliefs even when we don't know we're doing it.
- Physiological causes can lay behind even profound supernatural experiences.
- Our perception of reality is distorted by our expectations and beliefs.
- Our experiences are not objective, but are informed by our mindset and culture.
We can take preventative steps. Learning to think skeptically and carefully and to recognize that our very experiences and perceptions can be coloured by societal and subconscious factors should help us to maintain our cool. Beliefs should not be taken lightly, and evidence should be cross-checked. This especially applies to "common-sense" facts that we learn from others by word of mouth and traditional knowledge. Above all, however, our most important tool is knowing what types of cognitive errors we, as a species, are prone to making.”
The Bible (NIV). The NIV is the best translation for accuracy whilst maintaining readability. Multiple authors, a compendium of multiple previously published books. I prefer to take quotes from the NIV but where I quote the Bible en masse I must quote from the KJV because it is not copyrighted, whilst the NIV is. [Book Review]
The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source.
Skeptical Inquirer. Pro-science magazine published bimonthly by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, New York, USA.
Carroll, Robert Todd. (1945-2016). Taught philosophy at Sacramento City College from 1977 until retirement in 2007. Created The Skeptic's Dictionary in 1994.
(2003) The Skeptic's Dictionary. Published by John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, USA.
(2000) "Subjectivism and Phenomenology: Is Objective Truth Obtainable?" (2000). Accessed 2016 Dec 24.
(2002) "Experiences of God are Illusions, Derived from Malfunctioning Psychological Processes" (2002). Accessed 2016 Dec 24.
(2008) "Errors in Thinking: Cognitive Errors, Wishful Thinking and Sacred Truths" (2008). Accessed 2016 Dec 24.
(2008) "The False and Conflicting Experiences of Mankind: How Other Peoples' Experience Contradict Our Own Beliefs" (2008). Accessed 2016 Dec 24.
(1996) Shamanism. Published by Element Books.
(1987, Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Religion. 16 huge volumes. Eliade is editor-in-chief. Entries are alphabetical, so, no page numbers are given in references, just article titles. Published by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA.
Gabbard & Twemlow
(1984) By G.O. Gabbard and A.W. Twemlow. "With the Eyes of the Mind: An Empirical Analysis of Out-of-body States". Published by Praeger Scientific, New York, USA.
Gregory, Richard L.
(1987) The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Quotes from 1987 reprint.
James, William. (1842-1910)
(1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience. Subtitled "A Study in Human Nature". From the Gifford Lectures delivered at Edinburgh 1901-1902, first Edition printed 1960. Quotes from fifth edition, 1971, Collins and from Amazon digital Kindle version of the 2015 Xist Publishing edition. [Book Review]
Kaku, Michio. Professor of theoretical physics.
(2014) The Future of the Mind. subtitled "The Scientific Quest To Understand, Enhance and Empower the Mind". Published by Penguin Books Ltd, London, UK. Quotes taken from Amazon e-book.
(1961) Self and Others. 2nd edition. Originally 1961. Published by Penguin Books Ltd, Middlesex, UK.
McConnel, James V.
(1986) Understanding Human Behavior. Hardback 5th edition. Originally published 1974. CBS College Publishing, Holt Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA.
(2004, Ed.) Encyclopedia of New Religions. Hardback. Published by Lion Publishing, Oxford, UK.
Stenger, Prof. Victor J.
(2007) God, the Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows That God Does Not Exist. Published by Prometheus Books. Stenger is a Nobel-prize winning physicist, and a skeptical philosopher whose research is strictly rational and evidence-based.
Weatherley, Lionel A.
(1891) The Supernatural?. Hardback. Published by J. W. Arrowsmith, Bristol. This is a hard to find book. Bath Library has a copy, accessed 2012 Dec 14.